Battle Chess II: Chinese Chess - Reference Card
Amiga Reference Card
Thank you for purchasing Battle Chess II: Chinese Chess ("BC") for your
Amiga computer. BC2 requires a minimum of 512k and one disk drive to
play, but is fully compatible with more memory, two disk drives or a
hard drive. BC2 is in stereo. We suggest you copy your master diskettes
before play; BC2 has no disk copy-protection.
LOADING INSTRUCTIONS FOR DISKETTE PLAY
1. Start your Amiga normally.
2. If you have two disk drives, insert Disk #1 in DF1: (your second
drive). BC2 will ask for Disk #2 when required. If you are at the
Workbench screen, double-click on the BC2 icon to start the game. If
you are at the CLI, type: DF1:CHESS2
3. If you have only one disk drive, open the boot disk and double-
click on the CLI icon. After the CLI window opens - switch your boot
disk with BC2 Disk #1 and type: DF0:CHESS2
4. After pressing the mouse button at the title page, BC2 will ask
you for a move out of the back of the manual. See Copy Protection,
page 2 of the manual.
LOADING INSTRUCTIONS FOR HARD DRIVE PLAY
1. Start your Amiga normally.
2. If you haven't installed BC2 to your hard drive, you will need to
do so. Double-click on the BCII2HD icon from Workbench or type:
BCII2HD from the CLI.
3. To load BC2 from here, double-click on the BC2 icon from Workbench
or from the CLI enter the proper subdirectory and type: CHESS2
4. Press a mouse button at the title page. If you are playing for the
first time, you will need to enter a confirmation move from the back of
the manual. See Copy Protection, page 2 of the manual. If this is
poses a problem, use the cracked version, See Skid Row.
Use your mouse to position the flashing square under the piece you want
to move, then press the left mouse button to select it. Select the
desired destination point by using the mouse, then press the left mouse
button. You will notice that legal moves are solid green squares and
illegal ones are solid red. There is no keyboard movement.
See pages 4-7 of the manual for an explanation of the menus. There is
no way to use the keyboard to bring up the menus. Use your mouse to
operate the menus or use the following shortcut keys.
OA-F Force Move
OA-M Suggest Move
OA-T Take Back
OA-S Toggle Sound On/Off
OA-L Show Layout
OA-H Toggle Help Move
OA-U Toggle Music On/Off
OA is the Open Amiga key, located on the right of the space bar.
PLAYING BATTLE CHESS II BY MODEM
You can play BC2 over the modem with another Amiga or an IBM if both
of you have Hayes-compatible modems. Refer to pages 8 and 9 in the
You can get a list of credits and the current version number of the
software by pressing ESC at the title page before you use a mouse button.
Battle Chess II: Chinese Chess
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For IBM/Tandy and 100% Compatibles
Battle Chess II requires at least 640K to play. Before you begin,
make a backup of your Battle Chess II disks. (Refer to your DOS User's
Manual for instructions on how to make backups.) MAKE SURE YOU PLAY
WITH YOUR BACKUP DISKS ONLY.
1. Boot your computer with DOS. If you have a mouse, make sure it is
connected and the driver installed.
2. Insert your backup of the BCII Startup disk. The first time you play
CHINESE CHESS you must run the setup program. Type a:setup <enter>.
Follow the instructions on screen. The setup program will configure
BCII to your system (graphics, sound boards, input device). If you are
not sure what you have or are having problems, configure your system to:
Graphics - CGA, Sound Board - Internal Speaker, Input device - Keyboard.
When you are finished with configurations make sure you save them to
3. If you want to play BCII from your hard disk, create a subdirectory
(we suggest creating one called CHESS2) and copy all files from all
disks into it. (Refer to your DOS user's manual for instructions on
how to create directories and how to copy files.)
4. To load BCII from here, make sure you are in the proper directory
or at the proper directory prompt, and type CHESS2 <enter>
During the setup program, you will be asked to type in a move from
one of the fictional games in Appendix A of this manual. Type in the
move it requests and type <enter>. For example, if asked for Blue's
third move in game #5, Morphy vs. Ching Ti, you would type K5F1 <enter>.
BCII will then be configured specifically for your system. If you
change system configurations, you will need to run the setup program
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NOTE: Mouse and joystick operations are the same.
Using Keyboard - To move your chess pieces, use the arrows to
position the flashing square under the piece you want to move, then
press <enter> to select it. Select the desired destination point by
using the arrows and press <enter>. (You will notice that legal moves
are solid green squares and illegal ones are solid red.) You can also
move the flashing square by using algebraic notation. For example, to
move the Knight you would type
Using Mouse - To move your chess pieces, use the mouse to position the
flashing square under the piece you want to move, then press the left
button to select it. Select the desired destination point by using the
mouse, then press the left button. (You will notice that legal moves are
solid green squares and illegal ones are solid red.)
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Battle Chess II Menus
Using Keyboard - Press the <F1> key to bring up the menus. Use the
arrows to switch between the menus and highlight an opponent. Press
the <enter> key to select it. Press the <ESC> key to exit without
selecting any opposition.
Using Mouse - Press the right mouse button to bring up the menus.
Keep holding the right mouse button down as you move the pointer over
menus titles and the appropriate oppositions will appear. Move the
pointer down to the option you desire and when the option highlights,
release your hold on the right mouse button. The four menus contain
the following options:
Load Game, Save Game, New Game, Set Up Board, Quit
Force Move, Take Back, Replay, Suggest Move, Show Layout, Help Move
Sound On/Off, Music On/Off, 3-D Board, 2-D Board Roman, 2-D Board
Chinese, Human Plays Blue, IBM Plays Blue, Modem Plays Blue, Human
Plays Red, IBM Plays Red, Modem Plays Red
Novice, Level 1-8, Set Time
Menu options that have a "+" beside them are currently selected.
Note that the Boards you can change to will show up in the Settings
menu, while the one you are on does not.
Menu Options Explained
If you've saved a game before, this option recalls the game and
picks up where you left off. After selecting Load Game, the Load
window will then appear displaying a list of your saved games. Select
the game you wish to load by double-clicking with the mouse or using
the arrow keys and pressing the <enter> key if you
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don't have a mouse. The game will be loaded with its saved settings.
Pick this option if you want to save a game to disk while the game
is in progress. After Battle Chess II asks you to insert your save
disk, the Save window will appear. Choose a slot with the mouse or
arrow keys, type a name for the game you wish to save, and then press
the <enter> key.
This option lets you start a new game at any time.
Set Up Board
This option lets you set up games for testing strategies. Set Up
is performed on a 2-dimensional chess board with the additional
chess pieces arranged vertically on each side of the board. Any of the
pieces can be selected and moved into any position by clicking on them
with the mouse.
Keyboard Users: To select a piece on the side of the chess board,
press the <F3> key, then using the arrows choose a specific piece, and
press the <enter> key. This will return your chosen piece to the
From Set Up, you have four additional menu options:
Clear Board: Removes all pieces from the board.
Restore Board: While remaining in Set Up, this aborts any changes
Next Move Blue, Next Move Red: This determines who moves next.
Done: Returns you to normal playing mode so you can play the game
you've set up.
Note that once you've entered Set Up Board, all moves stored from
your current game are lost.
You've had enough. Exit to the operating system.
If you get impatient while waiting for Battle Chess II to make its
move, you can force it to move, you can force it to move with this
option. This interrupts the computer's thinking process and makes it
take the best move that it has thought of so far (this command is not
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This option will take back the last move made by either side. You
can take back as many moves as you want, back to the first move you
Let's say you've just taken back a move, then decided it wasn't such
a bad move after all. Just select Replay to put the piece back where it
Want a hint for your next possible move? The suggest Move option will
give you that hint. Flashing highlights will appear on a point
occupied by one of your pieces and the suggested destination point
(this command is not instantaneous).
If this is selected, a window will appear showing the 2D board and
pieces. This is advantageous when you want to see the board layout
without the pieces in the way.
If selected, legal moves will be solid green squares while illegal
ones are solid red. This defaults to on.
Toggles the combat and animation sounds on and off.
Toggles the individual music scores for each piece on and off.
Shows the board in its splendid three-dimensional view with all
Shows the Two-dimensional board with Roman lettering carved into
Shows the two-dimensional board with Chinese lettering beautifully
engraved into each piece.
Human/IBM/Modem Plays Red/Blue
Use these six settings to determine who plays which side. For
example, if you wanted to play against another person, set Human
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Plays Blue and Human Plays Red. If you wanted the computer to play
against itself, set IBM Plays Blue, IBM Plays Red. Any combination
of these is allowed (Exception: Modem Plays Red, Modem Plays Blue) as
long as one side plays Red and the other plays Blue.
Levels Novice through 8 are available. Novice is the easiest,
and 8 is the hardest.
The longer Battle Chess II thinks, the more carefully planned its
moves will be, and the better game it will play. Under the Novice
level, Battle Chess II only does one simplistic board evaluation.
Remember, if it's taking too long, you can always override the
thinking time by using the Force Move option.
This lets you change Battle Chess II's average thinking time to
any amount you want, from 1 minute to 10,000 minutes. A window
will appear after you pick this option. Type a number measured in
minutes and press the <enter> key, and Battle Chess II will take
approximately that long to think per move.
If you don't want to use the mouse to select the menus, certain
shortcut keys are available in combination with the ALT key. See the
box below for the keys.
THINKING TIME PER LEVEL
1 5 seconds
2 10 seconds
3 30 seconds
4 1 minute
5 2 minutes
6 5 minutes
7 10 minutes
8 15 minutes
When your King is in check, the mouse pointer will change to a
"check" icon. It will change back to the normal pointer when the King
ALT F Force Move
ALT M Suggest Move
ALT T Take Back
ALT S Toggle Sound on/off
ALT R Replay
ALT L Show Layout
ALT H Help Move
ALT U Toggle Music On/Off
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Playing Battle Chess II by Modem
You can play Battle Chess II against a distant opponent if each of
you have a Hayes-compatible modem hooked up to your IBM. If you have
only one com port, you cannot have a mouse driver installed. If your
modem is properly connected, as shown in your modem manual, there
are 3 steps to start playing over the modem with Battle Chess II.
1. Arrange with your opponent who will be Red and who will play Blue.
After you've agreed, both of you should load Battle Chess II and set
your opponent's color with the "Modem Plays Blue" or "Modem Plays Red"
menu option. Hang up the phone on both ends before continuing.
2. One player must set his modem to auto-answer mode. You can do this
by pressing the <F2> then typing ATS0=1 and pressing the <enter> key.
(That's a zero, not the letter "O".)
3. The other player must call the player whose modem is set to auto
answer. To dial a number, press the <F2> key then type ATD 555-1212,
substituting the correct phone number, and press the <enter> key. You
can use any phone number with the ATD command, including area codes.
Your modem will pick up the phone and dial the number, and if all goes
well, it'll then connect with the modem on the receiving end. If you get
this far, you're set; you can start your chess game. When you move a
piece, that move will happen on your opponent's end as well as yours.
Note that after the two players are connected, the menu options New Game,
Set Up Game, and Load Game will send an entire new chess board to both
sides, discarding the current game.
When you set one player to Modem you can send text to your modem or
opponent by pressing the <F2> key. This will bring up a dialogue box
in which you can enter a line of text. The window will disappear when
you press <enter> and the line of text will be sent. This is the way
you control your modem in Battle Chess II,
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using the modem's AT commands, and it is also the way you send messages
to your opponent once you are connected. Press the <F2> key then type
one line and press the <enter> key. A window will pop up on your
opponent's screen with your message. After he or she dismisses the
window, the game can continue. You can receive these messages at any
time except when a window is open on your screen. If you type modem
commands in this way, the modem will act on them. See your modem
manual for details on AT commands.
There are two steps to break the connection and hang up the phone.
First, press the <F2> key, then type +++ (three plus signs), press
<enter>, and wait a moment. This will get your modem's attention.
Then press the <F2> key and type ATH to tell your modem to hang up.
This will close the connection between the two players.
Battle Chess II communicates at 300 baud with 8 bits and no parity.
Playing Battle Chess II With Serial Cables
If you and an opponent have two IBM computers, you may play with one
person at each IBM. Hook up a null modem cable between the IBMs' serial
ports. Then one person should pick Modem Plays Red and the other, Modem
Plays Blue. You can proceed to play as if you were connected by modem.
The only difference is that you never need to type any dialing commands.
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A Brief History of Chinese Chess
The central theme in all forms of chess is that chess is a
representation of war without the randomness or inequalities of real war.
Both sides begin the battle with the same number of pieces, and except
for the privilege of first move, the sides are completely even.
"Understand the Principles and the Enemy Will Be Vanquished."
- Ping Fa
The beginnings of chess can be traced back to seventh century India,
where the game was called 'Chaturang`. Soon, it spread to the nearby
regions of Persia and China. By the eleventh century, the game had
migrated throughout Europe by way of Spanish and Italian traders.
During this time, it underwent many modifications until it became the
international version of chess that is seen today.
While all this was happening in Europe, chess was undergoing
different changes in China. The Chinese version of chess differs
from its western counterpart in that it more so reflects the Chinese
culture and philosophy. For instance, since the Chinese were the
early developers of gunpowder, a piece representing a cannon was added
to the set. Each piece has a unique history associated with it which
reveals something of Chinese culture. The river in the middle of the
board represents the 'Celestial River` or the 'Yellow River` dividing
the "Northern Territory" from the "Southern Territory".
All in all, Chinese Chess is perhaps a more colorful representation
of war. It combines a richer historical feeling characterized by
the symbolic presence of each piece with a greater scope of movement
allowed by the larger and more open board.
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Basics of Chinese Chess
The goal of playing a game of Chinese Chess is identical to that of
many other games - specifically, defeating your opponent. In Chinese
Chess, this is done by placing your opponent's King in checkmate or
Here are the rules of Chinese Chess in a nutshell:
o Two opponents play against each other. One player is usually red,
and the other, blue.
o Each player has one King, two Rooks, two Cannons, two Knights, two
Ministers (blue Ministers are sometimes replaced by Elephants), two
Counsellors (or guards), and five Pawns.
o The object of the game is to put the opponent's King in "checkmate"
o The red player moves first then the two players alternate moves.
You must move when it is your turn.
o You may only move one piece per turn. A move is when a piece moves
from one intersection to another intersection. Each kind of piece moves
in its own individual way, described in the section of the manual
titled, "The Individual Pieces."
o No piece (except the Cannon) may jump over or pass through any other
piece on the board when it moves. Only one piece can be on an
intersection at a time.
o Any piece may capture any of the opponent's pieces by landing on the
same point with it. The captured piece is removed from the board and is
out of the game. You may only capture one piece per turn.
o When an opponent's piece threatens the King and that piece could
capture the King on the next move, the King is said to be in "check".
o If your king is in check, you must either move the King out of
check, block the attack with another piece, or capture the piece putting
your King in check. If you cannot escape check in one of these ways,
the King is in "checkmate", you lose, and the game is over.
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o If your King cannot make a legal move and is not in check, your
opponent has achieved a victory through stalemate. In Chinese Chess,
a stalemate victory is just as desirable as one achieved through
o A draw occurs when neither side is capable of achieving a victory
in the ways described herein.
"Nothing is more difficult than the art of maneuver.
What is difficult about maneuver is to make the devious
route the most direct and to turn misfortune to advantage."
- Sun Tzu
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As you can see by looking at your screen, the chessboard consists of
nine vertical and ten horizontal lines. When you boot Chinese Chess,
all the pieces are in their starting positions. All Chinese Chess games
start from this initial position.
Each side has an Imperial Palace made up of nine points in the 3 x 3
square marked by the diagonal lines. The open section, called the river,
in the center of the board divides the northern territory from the
southern. The markings at some of the intersections denote the starting
positions of the pawns and the cannons.
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The King may move one point forward, backward, left, or right, but
may never move diagonally. He is also restricted to movement within the
Imperial Palace. The King may never move so that he is in check or
directly across the board from the enemy King with no pieces in between.
Also, another piece may not move in such a way that the King will be in
check or that he will be directly facing the enemy King.
"The short men carry lances and halberds, and the tall men
bows and crossbows. The strong carry the banners and flags;
the valiant the bells and drums; the weak are servants and
prepare food. The wise lay plans."
- Wu Ch'I
Counsellors may move one point in any diagonal
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direction within the Imperial Palace.
Ministers may move exactly two points in a diagonal direction along
the same line. They may never cross the river and they cannot jump over
or through obstructing pieces.
Knights may move one point forward, backward, left, or right, followed
by one point diagonally left or right. Unlike conventional chess, the
Knight may not leap over pieces to make its move. For example, if a point
directly ahead of the Knight is occupied, the Knight cannot move forward
in that direction.
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Rooks may move any number of unobstructed points in a horizontal or
The Cannon moves much like the Rook. It may move any number of points
in a horizontal or vertical direction. However, in order to capture a
piece, the Cannon must first jump over a single piece of either color.
This piece is called a "bridge" or "screen." The Cannon then moves to the
point occupied by the captured piece.
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Pawns may move a single point forward, until they cross the river.
After crossing, they may move left or right in addition to forward. Pawns
may never move backward and they never promote upon reaching the far end
of the Board. Unlike conventional chess, they capture by moving straight
Each piece is represented with the following letter on the 2D Roman
K - Kings
G - Counsellors
M - Ministers
N - Knights
R - Rooks
C - Cannons
P - Pawns
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The Individual Importance of Each Piece
By now, you should be getting a sense of the power of each piece.
The Rook is considered the most powerful piece because of its ability
to move swiftly from one side of the board to the other. It is considered
to have the roughly the power of a Knight and Cannon combined. Its power
diminishes slightly toward the end of the game as it requires the help of
other pieces to penetrate a well-established enemy defense.
The Cannon is considered the second most powerful piece because of its
ability to destroy from a distance and its swift movement. Like the Rook,
its power diminishes toward the end of the game because its capturing power
is reduced as more pieces are eliminated from play. However, it is perhaps
the most important piece during the opening both offensively and
The Knight is considered only slightly less powerful than the cannon
because of its restricted movement early in the game. During that time, it
is used primarily for defense. Its power greatly increases toward the
mid-game as fewer pieces get in its way.
Ministers and Counsellors are extremely limited because the former can
never cross the river and the latter cannot leave the Imperial Palace.
For this reason, both are used exclusively for defense. Ministers
provide the outer defenses while Counsellors block attacks within the
Pawns are considered the least powerful pieces because of their
limited movement. Once across the river, however, the Pawn's power
increases as its movement abilities increase. Initially, a Pawn is used
to block the enemy's attacks and provide bridges for the cannons. Unlike
conventional chess, Pawns are not promoted when reaching the far horizontal
line. Therefore, it is not always wise to advance your pawns too far
across the board.
A way of remembering all of this is to think in terms
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of points: a Rook is worth about 9 points; a Cannon about 4.5; a Knight
about 4; a Minister or Counsellor about 2; and a Pawn about 1. If the
Pawn has crossed the river, however, it should be considered about 2
Because of the King's importance in winning the game, his value
cannot assigned a point value.
Keeping this in mind, you can see that you would come out well ahead in
power if you were able to trade a Knight for a Rook. However, there will
be times when you may want to sacrifice a high value piece for one of much
lower value - if, for instance by trading a Rook for a Counsellor you can
set up for checkmate in the next move, then it doesn't really matter
how many points you have lost. What ultimately matters in the game of
Chines Chess is whether or not you win the game. Everything else,
including points, is second.
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Winning the Game
Because of the limitations on many of the pieces' movements, Chinese
Chess games are generally shorter than conventional chess games.
Basically, there are two ways to win:
1. Put your opponent in checkmate.
1. Stalemate your opponent.
A checkmate occurs when a King is in check and he has no way to escape
and he has no way to escape the check. A stalemate occurs when a player
has no legal moves to make. A player is considered to be in check when his
King can be captured by an enemy piece on his opponent's next move. A
player can escape check in one of three ways:
1. Move the King out of the way to a safe point.
2. Move another piece to block the path of the check.
3. Capture the enemy piece putting the King in check.
A player who cannot escape check in one of these three ways is said to
be in checkmate and the game is over. If a player is not in check, but any
move the player makes will put him in check (which is illegal), the player
has been stalemated and loses the game.
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As in conventional chess, if neither side is able to capture the
opposing King, the game ends in a draw. This often happens if neither side
has any pieces remaining which can cross the river. There are two other
rules, unique to Chinese Chess, which help prevent draws:
1. It is illegal for the same piece to put the opposing King in check
three times in a row. "Draw By Perpetual Check", as it is called, is
2. It is illegal for a piece to chase an opposing piece back and
fourth. If either piece moves to more than two squares while the "chase"
occurs, then it is legal to continually threaten that piece.
Also, if the threatened piece is protected at either point, the chase
For example, a Rook moves from point A to point B to avoid capture
by an enemy Knight. The enemy Knight then moves from point Y to point
Z. If the Rook moves back to point A, the Knight could not move back to
point Y unless the Rook is protected at either A or B.
Therefore, draws usually occur when both sides are reduced in power
so that neither can penetrate the enemy's defenses.
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Chinese Chess Notation
For the purposes of playing Chinese Chess by computer, algebraic
notation is used to enter and note moves. The letters "a" through
"i" run across the bottom of the board from left to right, while the
numbers "1" through "10" (or "0" for our purposes) run from bottom to
top. Therefore, to move the red Cannon on the left to capture the
blue Knight on the first move, you type
Descriptive Notation is more commonly used in texts containing games,
although it is rather awkward. The vertical lines are numbered "1"
through "9", left to right for red. Each move consists of a four
letter code. The first letter is the piece's designation (eg. "C"
for Cannon), the next place is the number of the file (line) that the
piece is on. The third letter represents the type of movement ("F"
for forward, "B" for backward, and "H" for horizontal). The last digit
represent one of two things: if the piece remains on the same vertical
line, it is the number of steps taken forward or backward; if it
changed lines, then it is the new line the piece is on.
The four opening moves in Fig. 1 can be represented as follows:
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The Objective in Chinese Chess is the same as in conventional chess,
however, the strategies involved are much different. In Chinese Chess, a
positional advantage is very important, since the King has such limited
mobility. Often, a substantial material advantage can be offset by a
single Rook deep in enemy territory. Remember that Chinese Chess is much
quicker and deadlier than conventional chess. It's very common to win or
lose in the first few moves of a game. Be aware of the many ways a King
can be checkmated and watch for these positions developing.
There are many different openings in Chinese Chess. Whole volumes
have been dedicated to this single facet of the game.
The most common opening is the "Central Cannon" opening. This
consists of moving either Cannon directly behind the central Pawn.
Subsequently, the Knights may be moved out to defend the central Pawn in
case the opponent decides to open similarly. Otherwise, the central Pawn
can advance with little fear of being captured by the enemy Pawn because it
would place the opposing King in check by the supporting Cannon.
Other variations on this opening consist of 'jamming' the enemy Cannon
by advancing your other Cannon to the seventh rank or, using the Cannons
to defend ranks adjacent to the river from attack.
Other strategies involve moving pieces to free the most powerful
piece, the Rook. Carefully watch which pieces are endangered and which
ones you can capture.
It's important to establish yourself offensively and defensively
from the start of the game. For example, you can capture an enemy
Knight with your Cannon on the very first move. This is generally
not considered a good move since the resulting loss of your Cannon is
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usually devastating in the opening game. However, it is important
to note that you can threaten many pieces within one or two moves.
"Those skilled at making the enemy move do so by creating a
situation to which he must conform; they entice him with
something he is certain to take, and with lures of ostensible
profit they await him in strength."
- Sun Tzu
Though the opening game is important, it is not absolutely necessary
to consume a vast knowledge of opening moves since the Chinese Chess
board is so much larger and more open than its western cousin.
Imagination and innovation in the opening game very often results
in a far superior position.
Like conventional chess, there is no single "formula" for success
in the midgame. There are several guidelines that may be helpful
in forming your own strategy:
o Do not attack without enough reinforcements.
o Try to shift your point of attack from side of the board to the
other in order to keep your opponent off balance.
o Capture at least one Minister and/or Guard to help you set up your
o Keep pressuring your opponent's weakly protected pieces, even if
they are only Pawns.
o Move your Rooks out into an attacking position early, but not at
the expense of your initiative.
o If a piece cannot be protected from an attack very easily, it is
often better to use the 'extra` move to advance another piece to a
much better position.
When deciding whether or not to sacrifice a piece, you must take into
account how valuable that piece is at that point of the game. For
instance, a Cannon is not worth as much later in the game simply
because there aren't that many pieces to jump over. Knights generally
tend to become stronger later in the game because they benefit from
greater mobility. Also keep in mind that a Cannon is invaluable when
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well defended King, since it is the only piece in the game that can
'jump` over other pieces.
The end-game in Chinese Chess is not quite as complicated as
conventional chess because
a) the King is very limited in its mobility, and
b) a stalemate is considered a victory.
There are a few points to keep in mind when approaching the end-game:
o The King cannot move diagonally. Therefore, a Rook can effectively
limit the King to only a few moves without the risk of being captured
o The King cannot directly face the enemy King without another
piece between them. This rule can effectively be used to contain
the enemy King to a smaller area.
o Make sure you have enough pieces to overcome the defenses.
Otherwise, you should try to force a draw by using your offensive
pieces (ones that can cross the river) in defense.
The side with the most pieces or points does not necessarily have
the advantage. Many strategies exist to win the game or at least force
a draw when you are at the disadvantage. Learning and practicing end
game strategies by setting up boards with only a few pieces will
greatly improve your Chinese Chess playing.
"Use the most solid to attack the most empty."
- Ts'ao Ts'ao
"If you are able to hold critical points on his strategic
roads the enemy cannot come. Therefore Master Wang said:
'When a cat is at the rat hole, ten thousand rats dare not
come out; when a tiger guards the ford, ten thousand deer
- Tu Yu
Page 26 \/
Fictional Games from History
1) Marco Polo (Red) vs. Kublai Khan (Blue), 1275 AD
It is rumored that on one of his visits to China, Marco Polo engaged
the great Khan in a game of Chinese Chess. Although-neither player was
a master, Kublai was the more experienced of the two.
Marco Polo's fast and furious attack on the Khan's territory is at
first successful, but he sacrifices too many pieces. The end result has
Marco Polo with only one offensive piece remaining and a certain
victory for the Khan.
1. C2H5 N2F3
2. N2F3 C8H6
3. R1H2 N8F7
4. C8F4 C6F4
5. P7F1 C2F7
6. R9H8 C6H1
7. C8F1 C1H7
8. C8H3 C7B4
9. N3F4 C7H5
10. R2F7 C5F4
11. C5F4 N3F5
12. R2H5 M3F5
13. N4F5 R9F1
14. R2F7 R9H4
15. N5F3 R4F4
16. R8B4 C5B2
17. R8H4 R4H5
18. G6F5 C5F4
19. G4F5 G6F5
20. R4F5 R5H3
21. K5H4 R3F4
22. K4F1 R3H7
23. N4F4 R7B1
24. K4B1 R7H5
25. R4B2 G5B6
26. R4F3 K5F1
27. R4B1 K5B1
28. R4F1 K5F1
29. R4B1 K5B1
2)Tai Tsung (Red) vs. Emperor Chao (Blue), 975 AD
Tai Tsung is one of the early masters of the game of Chinese Chess.
His strategy is unusual and worthy of observation. Un-
Page 27 \/
like many players, Tai Tsung used his Pawns as offensive spearheads for
his attacks. Here is one of his rumored games against the Emperor.
Notice Tai Tsung's early sacrifice of his Cannons for position.
Then he slowly advances his Pawn along the seventh rank to secure his
1. C8F4 C8H5
2. N8F7 N2F3
3. C2F5 N8F7
4. N2F3 C5H8
5. R1H2 C8H9
6. R2F6 P7F1
7. R2F1 R9H8
8. R2F2 N7B8
9. M3F5 C9H7
10. P7F1 C7F4
11. N7F6 M3F5
12. N6F7 K5F1
13. M7F9 C7H1
14. R9H7 R1F1
15. P7F1 N7F6
16. P1F1 R1H4
17. R7F3 C1H5
18. N3F5 R4F6
19. P7H6 R4H5
20. G6F5 R5H1
21. P6F1 R1F2
22. G5B6 R1H2
23. C7B3 C2F1
24. P6F1 N3B1
25. C8H9 R2H4
26. K5H4 C2F6
27. P6F1 K5B1
28. C9F5 C2H6
29. C9F1 G4F5
30. P6F1 mate
3) Su Hsun (Red) vs. Tai Tsung (Blue), 989 AD
It is rumored that the aging Tai Tsung put his undefeated record
on the line against the poet Su Hsun.
Tai Tsung as usual moves his Pawns out early, but Su Hsun reacts well
to this movement. It is Su Hsun's Rooks, however, that move in for the
kill to give Tai Tsung his only recorded defeat.
1. C8H5 N8F7
2. C2F4 C2H5
3. N2F3 C5F4
4. N3F5 N2F3
Page 28 \/
5. C5H3 M3F5
6. C3F4 P3F1
7. P3F1 N3F2
8. P7F1 P5F1
9. P9F1 P5F1
10. P9F1 P1F1
11. P3F1 M5F3
12. N5F7 P1F1
13. N7F5 M7F5
14. N5F6 K5F1
15. C3H6 N7F6
16. C6H5 K5H6
17. C2H4 C8H4
18. P3F1 N6F4
19. C5B1 R1F3
20. C5H4 K6H5
21. R1H2 R1H6
22. R2F8 K5B1
23. C6H5 R6H5
24. C5H8 N4B2
25. R9F4 M5F7
26. R2H6 C4H7
27. R9F5 C7F7
28. K5F1 P5H6
29. K5H6 C7H4
30. R9H6 mate
4) Timur (Red) vs. Yung Le Ti (Blue), 1395 AD
The great general of Southeast Asia, Timur, is rumored to have avoided
a conflict with the Ming Dynasty in China by challenging the best Chinese
player at the time, Yung Le Ti, to a game of Chinese Chess. The winner
would be allowed all of the territories in Indochina without interference
from the loser. One can only guess at how the history of that region
might be different if the outcome of this game had been different.
Timur moves into attack position early, while Yung Le Ti establishes
his defenses. Through careful sacrifices, it is the great general
and strategist, Timur, who comes out with a victory. Note also Timur's
use of both Rooks to achieve his checkmate.
1. C2H3 C2H3
2. R1F2 C8H5
3. N8F7 C3F4
4. C3F4 P3F1
5. P3F1 P3F1
Page 29 \/
6. P1F1 C3F3
7. R9H7 N8F9
8. P3F1 R8H8
9. C8F5 R8F9
10. C8H1 M7F9
11. P3H4 R8H7
12. P4F1 R7H6
13. K5H4 P5F1
14. P4F1 C5H3
15. C3H5 P3F1
16. P4H5 G4H5
17. P5F1 K5F1
18. R1H6 C3F5
19. R4F6 K5F1
20. R4F1 N2F3
21. R4H5 K5H4
22. C5H7 C3B4
23. R7F3 C3F1
24. R7F2 R1F2
25. R7F1 M3F5
26. R7H6 mate
5) Morphy (Red) vs. Ching Ti (Blue), 1860 AD
The great American chessmaster, Palos Morphy, is rumored to have
agreed to play the Chinese master, Ching Ti, one game of Chinese Chess
and one game of European Chess. After soundly defeating his opponent
in the European game, Morphy was quite shocked to lose the Chinese
game in only eleven moves.
Morphy attempts one of the standard openings in Chinese Chess, but
his experienced opponent uses it to set up the kill. Notice the power
Ching Ti has when his Cannons are lined up together. Morphy can move
out of the way briefly, but not for long.
1. C8H5 N8F7
2. P5F1 C2H5
3. C2F4 K5F1
4. N2F3 C5F3
5. C5F4 N7F5
6. C2H5 C7H6
7. R1H2 C6F4
8. K5F1 C6H5
9. K5H4 C5B3
10. N3F4 C5H6
11. N4F3 C5H6 mate
Page 30 \/
"It is sufficient to estimate the enemy situation correctly
and to concentrate your strength to capture him. There is
no more to it than this. He who lacks foresight and under-
estimates his enemy will surely be captured by him."
- Ts'ao Ts'ao
Loading Instructions 2
Battle Chess II Menus 4
Load Game 4
Save Game 5
New Game 5
Set Up Board 5
Force Move 5
Take Back 6
Suggest Move 6
Show Layout 6
Help Move 6
Sound On/Off 6
Music On/Off 6
3D Board 6
2D Roman 6
2D Chinese 6
Set Time 7
Shortcut Keys 7
Playing By Modem 8
History of Chinese Chess 10
Basics of Chinese Chess 11
The Board 13
The Pieces 14
The King 14
The Counsellor 14
The Minister 15
The Knight 15
The Rook 16
The Cannon 16
The Pawn 17
Importance of the Pieces 18
Winning the Game 20
Drawn Games 21
Chinese Chess Notation 22
Appendix A 26
Fictional Games 26
Presented by SKIDROW