Flight of the Intruder - Manual
This manual was typed by an Atari ST dude called Alien, and fixed by [RYGAR].
The docs are for the Atari ST version but I think they will be OK for the
Amiga game as well (when it's out...). Also, 3 Atari ST pictures was not
included because i don't know how to convert the shit.. later! [RYGAR]
FLIGHT OF THE INTRUDER
Stephen Coonts A former U.S. naval aviator, Stephen Coonts accumulated 1,600
hours aboard the USS Enterprise during the Vietnam War.As well
as providing the accurate technical detail in the bestseller
Flight of the Intruder (Simon and Schuster, 1986), Steve
provided much more information in a very long transatlantic
phone call. Steve also wrote Final Flight and The Minotaur.
Pete Bonanni Major, U.S. Air National Guard - F-4, F-16 and A-7 pilot who
provided anecdotal information about the F-4.
Norman Cosand Former U.S Air Force Captain- Flew Wild Weasel F-4 missions as
a "Guy In Back"over North Vietnam. Provided useful information
about F-4 missions and flight characteristics.
Phil Handley Colonel, U.S. Air Force (retired) - An invaluable source of
information about Phantom vs. Mig combat over North Vietnam.
Colonel Handley is credited with the only F-4 gun kill of a
MiG-19 over North Vietnam.
John McGinn Lieutenant Commander,U.S. Navy Reserve - Veteran A-6 pilot who
is still flying and provide helpful checks on our A-6 accuracy
If you have questions regarding the use of Flight of the Intruder, or any of
our other products, contact Spectrum Holobyte Customer Support at:
Mail: Mirrorsoft Ltd
118 Southwark Street
London SE1 OSW
Phone: 071 261 9465
9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.
Monday to Friday
Full manual typed out by Alien!! [FIXED BY [RYGAR]
Come Fly With Me
by Stephen Coonts
A modern jet warplane is a strange, challenging machine; its cockpit is so
different to the places that most of us are familiar with. It's a flying Grand
Prix racer, world-class superbike and a video game, all in one.
This magnificent machine slices through the atmosphere with a freedom that
cannot be described, only experienced. A slave to your every whim, the
aircraft responds to the slightest pressure on the controls, yet is ready to
kill you the instant you make a false move. There is the darkness and the
weather - nothing is as black as a night sky under a tropical overcast as
you skim above the ground knowing that the slightest caress from Mother Earth
will be instantly, totally, fatal. There is the enemy - in combat they are
doing their damnedest to destroy your machine, and you with it. If you survive
all that, then you may sample the piece de resistance, the night carrier
landing, usually in foul weather, occasionally in a shot-up airplane. You come
out of the goo and there is the deck,pitching gently with the meatball and the
centerline lights and all you have to do is fly your airplane through the
needle's eye into an arresting gear wire.
So come on!
Come fly with me.
You awaken in the middle of the night, put on your stinky, green one-piece
flight suit and your steel-toed flying boots - you need the steel toes to keep
your feet from being torn off by the instrument panel if you eject - and
stumble through the passageways to the briefing room to learn your target and
mission. You swig a cup of bitter coffee and don your flight gear in layers:
G-suit, torso harness, survival vest, pistol, helmet, oxygen mask, gloves,
flashlight, survival radios. You even a wedge a candy bar and a plastic baby-
bottle full of water into one of your G-suit pockets.
Out on the flight deck your aircraft is waiting. The night is hot and humid in
the tropics -you quickly work up a sweat which soaks your underwear and flight
suit and runs in salty rivulets into your eyes.
You examine the plane and its weapons with your flashlight. There are a lot of
weapons on this A-6 tonight, ten 500-pound bombs, a dozen Rockeye anti-tank
weapons at 500 pounds each, and a 2,000 pound belly tank on the center-line
station, 16,000 pounds of internal fuel.The plane weighs 56,500 pounds for the
catapult shot - over 28 tons. Over half that weight is fuel and ordnance.
When you are satisfied that all is as it should be, or when you can put it off
no longer, you climb the ladder into the cockpit, for this plane is big, with
the cockpit rail nine feet above the deck. The plane captain helps you strap
yourself to the ejection seat. Perhaps he says something he thinks is funny
because you look like you need it.
On signal you bring the machine to life, start the engines, turn on the
inertial navigation system, computers, radios, radar, the electronic
countermeasures, and check the health of every system. All go.
You sit staring across the deck at the inky blackness, at the other aircraft
with other men like you, equally competent, equally scared, waiting.
Then the yellow-shirt taxi director gives the signal. You use throttle and
brakes carefully, attentive to every twitch of his hand and nod of his head.
There is little room on the aircraft carrier flight deck and most of it is
taken. You get what is left over. You taxi slowly, obediently, alert for the
exhausts of other aircraft or grease that will break your tires' adhesion to
the anti-skid surface. The sea is out there in that blackness, waiting. As
you taxi, you lower and lock the wings and drop the flaps and slats to takeoff
Onto the catapult. You feel the clunk as the shuttle captures the nose-tow
link; you see the cat officer's signal to advance the throttles to full power.
You shove the levers forward to the stops and take your feet off the brakes.
The engines wind up with a howl audible even through the padding of your
Your breathing is rapid, the salt of your sweat stings your eyes as you waggle
the controls and check the engine instruments. The machine trembles from the
fury of the roiling air being sucked into the headrest and wait for the shot.
Ahead of you is a hundred yards of dimly-lit deck, then nothing! The night is
waiting to swallow you. Inside this machine full of fuel and laden with
weapons, you will soon be thrown from this deck into that hot, humid, black
air, 60 feet above the night sea, 15 knots above a stall. The enemy is also
waiting, also ready - even now they are loading belts of ammo into the anti-
aircraft guns and testing their missiles.
Your life will depend on your skill, your knowledge, your courage, your
You blink the sweat from your eyes and take one more ragged breath.
The catapult fires and the G's slams your back into your seat as the blackness
hurls towards you.
Table of Contents
PERSONNEL ............................................... 33 NOTE: THESE
CONTRIBUTORS ............................................ 73 NUMBERS ARE -NOT-
Come Fly With Me ...................................... 82 CORRECT! [RYGAR]
TABLE OF CONTENTS ...................................... 175 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
PART I: INTRODUCTION ................................... 387
BACKGROUND ............................................. 389
ABOUT THIS MANUAL ...................................... 433
USING THIS MANUAL .................................... 441
CONVENTIONS USED IN THIS MANUAL ...................... 484
Input Devices ...................................... 486
Step-By-Step Instructions .......................... 511
MINIMUM SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS ............................ 519
PLAYING FROM FLOPPIES .................................. 532
INSTALLATION ON A HARD DRIVE ........................... 566
PROBLEMS WITH INSTALLATION? .......................... 590
PART II: MENUS AND CONTROLS ............................ 629
THE PULL-DOWN MENU BAR ................................. 635
ABOUT Menu ......................................... 668
FILE Menu .......................................... 673
LEVEL Menu ......................................... 721
CONTROL Menu ...................... ...... ........ 731
Input Device .................... : : ........ 736
Sound Options ................... : : ........ 766
Scale Control ................... :.....' ........ 788
Detail of Simulation Visuals .... : : ........ 794
Other Factors ................... : : ........ 802
OPTIONS Menu ...................... : : ........ 815
Engines .......................................... 828
Armaments ........................................ 845
Flight Model ..................................... 858
Opposition Factors ............................... 892
Fuel ............................................. 926
Indexing Preferences to Rank ..................... 938
COMMS Menu ......................................... 966
The Comms Connection Details Screen ............. 1025
Compatability Note .............................. 1041
CONTROLLING YOUR AIRCRAFT ............................. 1050
"FLYING WITH THE STICK" ............................. 1052
USING THE KEYBOARD .................................. 1065
Turns ............................................. 1076
USING THE JOYSTICK .................................. 1091
The Gravis MouseStick ............................. 1107
The Aerochopper ................................... 1115
USING THE MOUSE ..................................... 1124
THE RUDDER TURN ..................................... 1142
PAUSE ............................................... 1168
PART III: FIRST FLIGHT IN THE A-6 INTRUDER ............ 1184
THE DUTY ROSTER ....................................... 1190
Cockpit Orientation ............................... 1263
First Strike Mission .............................. 1453
Landing ........................................... 1479
A Typical Intruder Mission .......................... 1507
Finishing the Mission ............................. 1674
PART IV: FIRST FLIGHT IN THE F-4 PHANTOM .............. 1684
SELECTING A PHANTOM MISSION ......................... 1701
Cockpit Orientation ............................... 1715
TAKEOFF PROCEDURES AND FIRST FLIGHT ................. 1734
Controlling Your Aircraft ....................... 1736
About the BarCAP Mission ........................ 1742
Going Into Combat ................................. 1814
Using the Sparrow ............................... 1851
Using the Sidewinder ............................ 1899
Using the Vulcan M61A1 20mm Cannon .............. 1931
After the Battle .................................. 1964
LANDING ........................................... 1973
Flying The F-4 .................................... 2000
Moving On ....................................... 2176
PART V: YOU AS CAG .................................... 2191
PLANNING A MISSION .................................. 2195
Summary of the Mission Planning Process ........... 2207
A MISSION OF YOUR OWN ............................... 2241
Saving the Planned Mission ........................ 2275
TARGET INTELLIGENCE ................................. 2291
GENERAL INTELLIGENCE ................................ 2313
POINTS OF INTEREST .................................. 2343
WAYPOINTS ........................................... 2402
Moving the Position of the Current Waypoint ...... 2434
Editing Waypoint Dialog .......................... 2441
The Waypoint Actions ............................... 2473
USING THE MAP ....................................... 2522
STORES .............................................. 2597
Optional External Fuel Tanks ...................... 2657
Weapon Station Capacity ............................ 2677
AIRCRAFT INFORMATION ................................ 2722
Aircrew Personnel ................................. 2835
Assigning Plane Crews ............................ 2850
Replacing Pilot Teams ............................ 2867
Personnel Descriptions ............................ 2872
Meanings of Ratings Categories ................... 2877
A-6 Pilot Personalities .......................... 2896
F-4 Pilot Personalities .......................... 2977
Enemy Encounters .................................. 3064
Air Encounters ................................... 3073
Ground Encounters ................................ 3080
SAMs ............................................. 3082
AAA .............................................. 3100
Rifles ........................................... 3111
Friendly Fire .................................... 3117
PART VI: OPERATIONS AND MISSIONS ...................... 3125
SELECTING AN OPERATION ................................ 3131
RULES OF ENGAGEMENT ................................. 3149
COURT-MARTIAL ....................................... 3186
Operation BARCAP .................................. 3220
Operation DECK ALERT .............................. 3237
Operation TALLY HO YO ............................. 3251
Operation BACK BREAKER ............................ 3278
Operation MORNING SONG ............................ 3307
Operation JULY 4TH EVE ............................ 3329
Operation JULY 4TH DAY ............................ 3345
Operation JULY 4TH REFRAG ......................... 3370
Operation LIGHTS OUT .............................. 3386
Operation IRON RAIN I ............................. 3409
Operation IRON RAIN II ............................ 3434
Operation ALPHA STRIKE ............................ 3459
Operation HUNTER KILLER ........................... 3484
The Most Dangerous Game ............................. 3509
PART VII: DEBRIEFING .................................. 3620
OPERATION STATISTICS .................................. 3624
SUCCESS RATING TABLE ................................ 3649
Saving to Disk .................................... 3741
SIERRA HOTEL ........................................ 3750
BADGES .............................................. 3766
MEDALS .............................................. 3785
PART VIII: FLYING AND FIGHTING ........................ 3834
IN THE COCKPIT ........................................ 3840
The HUD Dot ..................................... 3957
Instruments In Common ............................. 3963
Threat Indicator and Panel ...................... 4063
Reading the COMED ............................... 4140
Phantom System Lights ............................. 4160
Intruder Warning Lights ........................... 4188
Intruder Multiple Weapon Selection Panel .......... 4262
Phantom Warning Light Panel ....................... 4297
Displays Unique to the Phantom .................... 4308
The Phantom Radar Screen .......................... 4357
Reading the Radar Screen .......................... 4373
Phantom G-Force Gauge ............................. 4428
IFF ............................................... 4437
OFFICER TRAINING ...................................... 4447
THE NATURE OF G-FORCES .............................. 4452
AIR COMBAT MANEUVERS (ACM) .......................... 4569
FUEL MANAGEMENT ..................................... 4762
Fuel Limits ....................................... 4800
USING THE RADIO ..................................... 4815
PHANTOM MULTIPLE WEAPON SELECTION PANEL ............. 4862
AIR-TO-AIR WEAPONS .................................. 4909
AIM-7 Sparrow ..................................... 4915
AIM-9 Sidewinder .................................. 4950
Guns and Rockets .................................. 4986
BOMBING MISSIONS ...................................... 5025
Intruder Missions ................................. 5027
Normal Strike Missions ........................... 5034
Alpha Strike ..................................... 5044
Dive Bombing ..................................... 5051
Stephen Coonts' Technique .......................... 5062
BOMBING TECHNIQUES .................................. 5080
Using DIANE ....................................... 5087
Using Direct ...................................... 5150
Using Dive-Toss ................................... 5187
MIL DETERMINATION TABLES ............................ 5198
AIR-TO-GROUND WEAPONS ............................... 5305
AGM-45A Shrike .................................... 5309
AGM-78 Standard ................................... 5335
AGM-62 Walleye .................................... 5351
LGB Paveway ....................................... 5414
LAU-3A ZUNI Rockets ............................... 5451
Iron Bombs ........................................ 5476
PART IX: CARRIER LANDINGS ............................. 5543
INSTRUMENTATION TO HELP WITH LANDING ................ 5573
The Meatball ...................................... 5575
AOA Indexer ....................................... 5585
GETTING HOME ........................................ 5627
Manually .......................................... 5629
By Autopilot ...................................... 5636
Automatic Carrier Landing System (ACLS) Indicator . 5642
PRACTICE LANDINGS ................................... 5668
PART X: AIRCRAFT SPECIFICATIONS ....................... 5734
A-6 INTRUDER ........................................ 5739
F-4 PHANTOM II ...................................... 5785
MIG-21 .............................................. 5831
MIG-19 .............................................. 5866
MIG-17 .............................................. 5882
SUMMARY COMPARISONS ............................... 5902
PART XI: THE NAVAL WAR OVER VIETNAM ................... 5916
A WORD ABOUT THE VIETNAM WAR ........................ 6277
PART XII: GLOSSARY AND ABBREVIATIONS .................. 6323
PART XIII: THE KEYBOARDS .............................. 7011
KEYBOARD LAYOUT ..................................... 7016
KEY COMMAND DESCRIPTIONS ............................ 7135
PART XIV: EXAMPLE OF PLAY ............................. 7506
FURTHER READING ..................................... 7695
THE PULL-DOWN MENU BAR
Press [F10] at any time to display the menu bar at the top of the screen.
Alternatively, click the mouse at the top of the screen.
Once you display the menu bar, the game is stopped. It remains paused until
you use the "Return" option from the FILE menu or select a menu option.
Menus can only be accessed with the keyboard or mouse.
The game will save all menu choices you have made to go with your name and
callsign and give you the same options the next time you fly with that pilot.
If you wish to fly with different options, you must either rechoose the
options or pick a different pilot and set up different configuration options
for that name.
If you are killed on a mission, that name and callsign are immediately
"retired" and the saved menu options configuration is lost. To keep your
preferred menu configurations after losing a pilot, just choose the topmost
"NEW" from the Duty Roster that matches your callsign. The menu options should
be the same as those of the pilot that died. This technique only works if your
pilot has successfully completed at least one mission.
Each of the six menus in the menu bar contains a number of options. However,
the ABOUT, LEVEL, OPTIONS and COMMS menus are only available before you get
into the cockpit to fly a mission. The menus remain hidden until you access
them using the following method:
Move the mouse pointer to the menu you wish to pull down and press the left
mouse button to select the menu option.
The following is a description of the menu options with each of the Flight of
the Intruder's six menus.
This provides information about the game itself. Choosing this menu displays
the credits, the version number and other information about the simulation.
The FILE Menu lets you manipulate the simulation (or "file") at hand. By
selecting from the following options, you can abort, postpone or end an
operation, as well as return to the operation from which you accessed the FILE
Menu. You can also end the game.
Abort Mission: Returns you to the Duty Roster.This is otherwise known
as "giving up." You are awarded no points for an
End Mission: Takes you immediately to the end of the mission,
whether or not you have attained the objective. Use it
for eliminating the tedium of a return-to-carrier trip
and the anxiety of a carrier landing. The mission is
over,and you will proceed immediately to Debriefing to
get your scores.
Return: Returns you to the operation in-flight.
Exit: Exits the game with no score recorded for that mission
Take Photo: Allow you to take a photograph of what is on screen at
the moment you choose the option. This comes in handy
for later reference during Debriefing. While flying,
you can press [*] for the same result.
Camera On: This turns on the "videotape camera" to record action
sequences during a game. This can only be accessed
while in flight. It can also be turned on by pressing
The following options can only be accessed during Mission Briefing or
Debriefing. Pressing [Esc] takes you back to the Corridor Screen.
Slide Show: This allows you to go to the Debriefing Photograph
screen to look at any photographs you have taken and
Video Replay: This allows you to replay any previously saved videos.
Sierra Hotel: This shows you the current top ten pilot list for the
Awards: This shows you what awards the pilot has already
Use the LEVEL Menu to choose the level of difficulty of the simulation, from
"Lieutenant j.g." (the easiest) to "Captain" (the most difficult). When you
first start the simulation,the rank defaults to Lieutenant j.g. You can select
the more difficult levels as you become more proficient. You earn more points
for completing a mission at a higher level of difficulty. See the OPTIONS Menu
for more information about ranks and levels of difficulty.
Use the CONTROL Menu to select or change input device, sound options and
control the detail of the simulation visuals.
This determines what device you will use to control your flight. You must
select the device after selecting your pilot (see Part III). Selecting one of
the following five devices places a check mark next to that option:
Keyboard: This is the default.It allows you to operate the plane
entirely from your keyboard.
Mouse: Like the joystick,this allows you fly and fight with a
mouse but leaves several functions to be done on the
MouseStick: Use this option if you are using the Gravis MouseStick
with your ST. Its buttons correspond to those on a
mouse, but the stick allows you to fly the plane as if
using a joystick.
Joystick: This allows you to maneuver and fire the aircraft's
weapons with a joystick, although you will still have
to use the keyboard for several functions.
Aerochopper: This Atari ST device lets the user fly using a special
controller for flying a radio-controlled aircraft. RC
enthusiasts will recognize the configuration as the
popular "Mode 2." You cannot use a standard joystick
with this option. Note that the game supports only the
cartridge-based version of the Aerochopper, not the
recent serial version.
All Sound Off: Turns all the sound in the game off. Select this for
playing at work or when the rest of the family is
Engines Off: Turns off the sound of the engines, relieving a source
of irritation (for real pilots as well as players),and
leaving on all the important sounds such as guns and
Engines/Msg Off: Turns off the sound of the engines as well as the
"radio chatter" sound you hear when a new message is
displayed across the top of the screen (see 'Using the
Radio, in Part VIII). Again, all other sounds are
still available to mark important actions.
All Sound On: Is for those who have to hear the sound of the engines
as well as all the rest of the sound. This is not
recommended for households where anyone has sensitive
Large Scale: Makes all the objects in the game four times as big as
they normally would be in relation to the land and sea
This makes spotting things easier.
Detail of Simulation Visuals
Minimum Detail Controls the detail of the simulation. The more detail
Low Detail chosen, the better the detail of the visuals. However,
Medium Detail the game runs slower because of the extra time
High Detail necessary for the computer to draw detailed pictures.
Engagement rules: Turns on the Rules of Engagement, which are described
in detail in Part VI: Operations and Missions.
Bad Weather: Means that you will be fighting (or perhaps enjoying)
bad weather throughout the mission. Some missions are
set to "Bad Weather" as a default. The main effect of
bad weather is that it grounds the MiGs unless you fly
over their airfield.You still have to worry about SAMs
and pattern-fired AAA.
This menu sets your game preferences. For example, you can choose to limit the
armaments you have available, to equip your aircraft with "Super Engines," or
to make mid-air "Collisions" possible. By changing options in both the LEVEL
and OPTIONS Menus, you can achieve a wide range of difficulty levels. For
example, you can choose to go up against an aggressive enemy, but retain the
advantage of super engines to give you that extra edge.(Note that this menu is
not available during flight; you must choose it during Briefing.)
Choosing an option places a check mark next to it in the menu so you can tell
the state of an option at a glance. The following choices are available:
Super Engines: Makes your flying job a little easier. For example, by
selecting "Super Engines," you can assume that the ASI
(Air Speed Indicator) needle is directly connected to
the RPM gauge and is the only influence on your speed.
The only reason for a stall will be you dropping below
minimum speed for the aircraft.This is not necessarily
the case with "Normal Engines" (see below).
Normal Engines: Makes your flying life a little more difficult. The
"Normal Engines"respond to airspeed influences such as
differences in air density,whether you are climbing or
diving, your current weight and your current aspect
angle. Stalling is much more likely with "Normal
Limited Arms: Limits the armament and ammunition you have available
during a mission tothe amount the plane could actually
carry.This is the more difficult setting and closer to
reality. Choosing this option a second time toggles it
off, giving you an easier game with unlimited arms.
Limited Chaff & Flares: Limits the chaff & flares you have available during a
mission. This is the more difficult setting and closer
to reality. Choose this option a second time to toggle
it off and have unlimited use of chaff and flares.
Collisions: If this is turned on,the piloted aircraft is destroyed
if it collides with another object (e.g. another
aircraft, missile, house, carrier, bridge). Turn
"Collisions" off to make the piloted aircraft
invulnerable.It can fly through anything without being
damaged. "Collisions" on is the more difficult setting
and closer to reality. Choosing this option a second
time toggles it off.
Ground Crashes: If this is turned on,the piloted aircraft is destroyed
if it hits the ground too heavily (during a bad
landing, for example). If "Ground Crashes" is turned
off, then a heavy landing will not result in the
destruction of the aircraft. You can turn "Ground
Crashes" off by selecting it a second time.
Red/Black Out: Simulates the possibility of pilot blackout or redout
under circumstances of excessive g forces during
flight. Positive g forces, usually the result of sharp
high-speed turns, can cram the pilot into his seat and
push his blood supply downward. Forces in excess of 8
g's create a risk of pilot blackout, characterized in
this simulation by a screen fade-out. Negative g
forces, which tend to "pull" the pilot from his seat
during a sustained high-speed dive, are equally
dangerous. Forces in excess of -2.5 g's can result in
pilot redout, characterized by the screen turning
progessively red. If either situation should occur in
the game, you can recover from it by reversing or
stopping the current action by easing off the stick.
Turning "Red/Black Out" off avoids this altogether.
Enemy Activity: Allows you to choose from "Low," "Medium" and "High
Enemy Act(ivity)." These settings determine whether
the enemy's MiGs carry armament, as well as the
effectiveness of their flares and the SAMs and AAA.The
following table summarize the relationship between the
"Enemy Activity" settings and the effectiveness of the
MiGs Flares SAM/AAA
Low No guns Ineffective Ineffective
Medium Guns Sometimes Sometimes
No missiles effective effective
High Guns Fully Fully
Missiles effective effective
Targets: Allows you to choose from "Easy," "Medium" and "Hard
Targets." This determines how close the bomb has to be
to the target to hit. With "Easy Targets" selected,you
score a hit when the bomb falls within an area four
times the size of the shape of the target in normal
scale. Thus, you still have to hit a target in "Large
Scale" to make it count. "Medium Targets" scores a hit
if the bomb falls within an area two times the size of
the shape in normal scale or anywhere within a target
at "Large Scale." "Hard Targets" must be hit on the
target itself in normal scale or at the center of the
target in "Large Scale."
Unlimited Fuel: The plane does not consume any fuel. You can stay in
the air as long as you do not get shot down or crash.
Half Fuel Use: The plane consumes fuel at half its normal rate,giving
you much more air time.
Full Fuel Use: The plane consumes fuel at a realistic rate. You have
to manage your fuel just like a real pilot does.
Indexing Preferences to Rank
The above preferences allow you to tailor the game to your requirements. Your
selected rank provides a broad customization. For example, if your selected
rank is Captain, the preset options are set for the maximum reality. You can
alter them all to "easy," but this gains you nothing, as your score depends
on the options selected, not your rank.
The following table shows the relationship between rank and the availability
of the "easy" options. The letters in the body of the table refer to the state
of the option (Yes/No, Low/Medium/High, Easy/Medium/Hard or Unlimited/Half/
Full). The numbers refer to the multipliers to the base score you receive for
taking the specified options.
Lt. jg Lieut. Lt. Cmdr. Cmdr. Capt.
Super Engines Y 0.1 Y 0.1 N 0.3 N 0.3 N 0.3
Limited Arms N 0.1 N 0.1 Y 0.3 Y 0.3 Y 0.3
Limited Chaff/Flares N 0.1 N 0.1 N 0.1 Y 0.3 Y 0.3
Collisions N 0.1 Y 0.7 Y 0.7 Y 0.7 Y 0.7
Ground Crashes N 0.1 N 0.1 Y 0.3 Y 0.3 Y 0.3
Red/Blackout N 0.1 N 0.1 N 0.1 Y 0.4 Y 0.4
Enemy Activity L 0.2 M 0.4 M 0.4 M 0.4 H 1.4
Targets E 0.1 E 0.1 M 0.5 H 0.8 H 0.8
Fuel U 0.1 H 0.3 H 0.3 F 0.5 F 0.5
Totals 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0
The COMMS Menu presents you with three choices. "Single Player" is the
default for playing on the computer alone. To use one of the other options you
must have two computers connected through a null-modem serial cable (available
at most computer supply stores). Sorry, but we do not support modems because
the baud rate of most modems are not fast enough to provide a playable version
of this simulation. (Oh really? Funny, the fastest baud rate the sim uses is
19200 and the lowest is 1200, and I think the majority of modems in the UK are
at least 2400... I think it's more likely that the programmers haven't
got a clue how to program modem communications... look how they've ballsed up
Before setting up two-player communications,you must decide on which operation
you will fly. Both players should go to that Operation Screen. Then use the
COMMS Menu to determine which is the "Host" and which the "Terminal." The
player with the faster computer (sure, every ST owner has an accelerated
processor...!) should select "Host" because his machine does most of the work.
The "Host" player also has more control of the game and options.
The "Terminal" player may use the menus to pick his own flight mode, level of
detail, control method and weather conditions. (Yes, one player can be playing
in clear weather and the other in bad weather. This is a gap in reality put in
so that one player can play a more difficult game as a personal challenge.)
Single Player: Means you are playing on the computer alone.
Host: Appears as the default when you are playing with or
against another player. The player with the faster
machine (which will be doing most of the work) should
select this option. This player can choose any U.S.
aircraft at the beginning of the game. He can switch
to other aircraft including the Terminal player's
plane but cannot control the Terminal player's plane.
Terminal: Is the option for the player with the slower machine.
Once the connection described below is made, he will
be presented with the Host's callsign. Using [Cursor
Up] and [Cursor Down] the Terminal player can cycle
through all the American callsigns and pick a section
to lead on the same mission. Or he can change the
callsign number to make himself the Host player's
If you do not choose an American callsign, you can
cycle through Bandit 1, Bandit 2, etc.and pick a North
Vietnamese plane to fly. From the outside your plane
will look like a MiG, though, of course, the cockpit
and handling characteristics will be those of an F-4
Once the Terminal player has picked an aircraft, he
must stay in it. The autopilot does not work in
Terminal mode. If it is an American plane, the Host
player can enter the plane but cannot control it. If
the Terminal player selects a MiG, he must fly with
"Collisions," "Normal Engines," "Limited Arms" and
"Full Fuel Use" on.
The Comms Connection Details Screen
Once you have finished setting up the mission to your mutual liking, the same
screen comes up for both the Host and the Terminal computer; a box with
'COMMS CONNECTION DETAILS' at the top.
>> BAUD RATE Use [Cursor Left] and [Cursor Right] to select a baud
rate. Both players should pick the same baud rate. Try
the highest possible baud rate 1st because the higher
the baud rate, the better the game will play.
>> CANCEL Press [Esc] to leave this dialogbox without attempting
Once either of the players is shot down, the game is over.
It is possible for an Amiga player to have the privilege of playing with a
superior Atari ST player. However,it is not possible for an IBM player to play
with either an Amiga (not that you'd want to) or Atari ST player. So poor old
IBMers can only play with themselves (oo-er). STs are faster than Amigas, so
they should be the Host computer in any linkup.
CONTROLLING YOUR AIRCRAFT
"FLYING WITH THE STICK"
Fighter pilots control the directional movement of their planes with a hand
control commonly known as the stick. The diagrams in this section show how to
control your A-6 Intruder and F-4 Phantom using either a keyboard, a joystick
or a mouse.
Throughout this manual, references to the stick apply equally to operations
using either the keyboard, joystick or mouse. For example, "pull back on the
stick" means either press [Cursor Down] on the keyboard,pull the joystick back
towards you, or move the mouse downward, depending on the input device you are
using. Refer to the diagrams for the other directional equivalents.
USING ANY KEYBOARD
When you use the keyboard to control directional movement, the aircraft's
"stick" automatically centers itself after each keypress, allowing you to
maintain a constant rate of turn. In other words, if you press [Cursor Left]
once, your aircraft will bank left at a small constant rate and continue to do
so until you make another directional change. If you want to increase the
degree of turn (or any other directional change),you need to hold the key down
for a longer period of time.Note that holding the left or right arrow key will
eventually roll the plane all the way over.
Turns Push Nose Down
To make a fast turn, you 7 8 9
must hold down both the
Bank Left key and the Pull Bank - 4 5 6 - Bank
Nose Up key. Holding down Left Right
both keys will put the plane 1 2 3
into a sharp turn. The longer |
you hold down the Pull Nose Pull Nose Up
Up key, the faster the turn.
The turn rate is slightly more
complicated when flying with
USING THE JOYSTICK
The joystick is used for flying the plane and firing weapons. Since Atari ST
digital joysticks only have one button, the sole joystick button is used for
Push Nose Down
Fire Button: Fire |
Bank Left -------+------- Bank Right
Pull Nose Up
The Gravis MouseStick
Selecting this option from the CONTROL Menu allows you to use the Gravis
MouseStick on your Atari ST. The top button is used for firing weapons,and the
first button on the base (the one at the 'top' end, furthest from you) is used
for making rudder turns. The stick can also be switched to use as a digital
The Aerochopper lets you simulate flying a radio-controlled aircraft on your
Atari ST. It hooks up to the cartridge on your computer. The right joystick
controls normal flight movement, and the left joystick is used for the rudder
and throttle. The forward right button is used for firing weapons,and the left
button is used for selecting air-to-air weapons.
USING THE MOUSE
A mouse can be used like a joystick to fly the aircraft. It is much trickier
because the mouse has no obvious "center stick" position. You have to keep a
close eye on the HUD dot (see Part VIII: Flying and Fighting) to know where
the control stick is in the pilot's hands when flying with a mouse.
Push Nose Down
Left Button: Fire | Right button: Rudder turn
Bank Left -------+------- Bank Right
Pull Nose Up
THE RUDDER TURN
It is possible to make a horizontal turn without moving your wings,making both
attack approaches and carrier landings much easier. In this simulation,you can
even make horizontal turns while banking or inverted.
Input Device Rudder Turn Instructions
Keyboard Press [Control] while pressing  or  on the
Digital Joystick Press [Control] while using the joystick to turn left
or right. One possible method is to use the pinkie
finger of the hand holding the joystick to press the
Mouse Press the right mouse button while moving the mouse
left or right.
Gravis MouseStick Press the second button while moving the stick to the
left or right.
Aerochopper Move the left-hand joystick to the right or left while
keeping the right-hand joystick centered.
You can pause the game at any time & put everything into a state of suspended
animation. To do this, press [P]. Press it a second time to resume play. Note
that pausing "stops the world." You can get a cup of coffee or have dinner
without worrying about finishing the mission at that time. When the game is
paused, you can still select the different views and move to different
aircraft. The rotation and zoom keys also work when paused.
While the game is paused, you can also change weapons and get ready for a
bombing run. Pausing the program lets you simulate the fact that the real A-6
and F-4 had a second air crew member to take care of these details while the
pilot flew the plane.
FLIGHT IN THE
"It was heavy. It proved the aerodynamic principle that if you have enough
power, you can fly a brick..."
"It had honest flight characteristics. It was a very stable gun platform,
albeit with no gun. And I never thought I'd admit it, but in the end, I came
to love the airplane..."
Both quotes from Col. Dennis J. (Deej) Kiley,
U.S. Marine Corps
SELECTING A PHANTOM MISSION
You have just completed your first Intruder mission and are back at the
>> Select "Phantom Pilot Brief" and then select "BarCAP" by pressing
[Return]. If you want to look at other operations first, keep
selecting "Next Op" [Cursor Down] until "BARCAP" appears again. Press
You will then find yourself on the catapult ready for an immediate launch to
intercept an incoming air threat. Your wingman will be launched seconds behind
you. This will be your opportunity to practice wing tactics.
You will probably notice some similarities between this and the A-6 cockpit.
More important, however, are the following differences:
The F-4 has a four-stage fuel afterburner (AB for short). Press [>] to
increase, [<] to decrease. Use full AB during the launch. You can also use AB
to go faster.
Unlike the A-6, the cockpit views are symmetrical, so that the right forward
45 degree view looks out of the aircraft.This is because the F-4 pilot and his
RIO (Radar Intercept Officer) are placed in tandem, with the RIO behind the
pilot. In the A-6,the pilot and his B/N (Bombardier/Navigator) are effectively
There is also a look down view. Press ], and note the position of the
Multiple Weapon Selection Panel to the lower left.Press [ to get back to the
usual cockpit view.
TAKEOFF PROCEDURES AND FIRST FLIGHT
Controlling Your Aircraft
Input device controls are the same as the A-6. Takeoff and landing procedures
are also similar, except for the use of the afterburner on takeoff. You may
want to review the earlier section describing aircraft control in Part II.
About the BARCAP Mission
You will be vectored to incoming threats by Red Crown, the radar picket ship.
Stay in the air as long as you want(at your beginning level you have unlimited
fuel and weapons).If you try this mission using the "Limited Fuel" or "Limited
Arms"options from the OPTIONS menu (see Part II), you will have to return when
you are Bingo fuel (just enough fuel for a safe landing) or Winchester (out of
missiles and ammunition). Otherwise, when you are tired of dogfighting,skip on
to 'Landing', near the end of this part of the manual, for instructions on how
to get back to your carrier and receive the rewards you have earned for your
When you are ready to take off:
>> Press [Control] [L] to launch the Phantom or wait for automatic launch
Note that the afterburner uses fuel at a tremendous rate, so cut back as soon
as possible. Don't sit at sea level with full afterburner.
>> Follow the same procedures you used with the Intruder to climb to 1000
feet. Kick up your speed to 600 KTS.You will note that your RPMs never
get below 70%. If an F-4's RPMs get lower, it falls; therefore, a
throttle stop is built into the engine to prevent this.
Within seconds you are at 1,000 feet and following your patrol pattern. Now it
is time to look for bogeys (unidentified aircraft) that might threaten your
home carrier. In Vietnam, the North Vietnamese wisely refrained from attacking
American aircraft carriers in international waters. This made BARCAP a very
dull duty for Navy fighter pilots. For this game, however, MiGs attacking the
carrier are a very real threat. Keep your eyes open.
>> Look for the enemy by following the directions printed across the top
of your screen. Remember, that 12 o'clock is directly in front of you
and 6 o'clock is directly behind you. You want to have enemies in the
former position and do not want them in the latter position. See Part
V: You as CAG ('Points of Interest' and 'Using the Map') and Part VIII
('Using the Radio') for instructions on how to follow the directions
from Red Crown.
>> At a distance of less than 27 miles, it is
possible to get radar detection of your enemies
if they are within a 60 degree cone from the
nose of your plane. If your radar is on (select
[R] if not) and you are pointing at the MiG, you
should get a green blip on the radar screen.
However, this means that the MiG will detect
your presence more easily. See Part VIII: Flying
and Fighting ('The Phantom Radar Screen') for
more information on the Phantom radar screen.
>> Also, you get a black diamond on the threat indicator (the
green circular screen on the upper right of the control
panel) if the MiG has its radar turned on. (For this
beginner's game, all MiGs have their radar on.) This
screen also shows other aircraft, ships and radar. The
range for this passive radar screen is variable, between
15 and 30 miles.
>> Finally, if all else fails, look for your targets. You can see enemy
aircraft about eight miles away. Actively switch to different
viewpoints within the cockpit. Like the A-6, you cannot look directly
back over your tail; your RIO is in the way. Do not shoot at your
Going Into Combat
>> Select ] to get the look down view.
This gives you a view similar to what you would get if you kept most of your
attention inside the cockpit. You want the Multiple Weapon Selection Panel on
the bottom left of this view.
>> Use [Return] to toggle between the Sparrow and Sidewinder missiles and
your 20mm gun.
As you toggle through the weapons you should see one of the
rows of five horizontal lights illuminated when the
Sidewinder is selected. This represents the selected
station on the Phantom's wing or centerline. Note that this
is the position (station) on the wing, not the type of
weapon. This means that you might toggle the same type of
weapon several times in a row if the weapon is carried on
several stations. The guns and Sparrows do not light up
because the guns pod is internal and the Sparrows are
mounted on their own special stations.
The weapon type is displayed in the box over the station
Above the illuminated station light you will see the number
of weapons available in that station. Above this set of
numbers you will see some lights labelled "RDR"
(indicating how many radar-guided Sparrow missiles) and
"HS" (indicating how many heat-seeking Sidewinder
missiles). Gun rounds remaining are shown to the right of
the Multiple Weapon Selection Panel.
Use the Sparrow for targets more than two miles away, the Sidewinder for
targets you are behind that are within two miles, and the gun for targets
within 500 yards.
Using the Sparrow
Since the AIM-7 Sparrow is a radar-guided missile, using it is a matter of
getting a radar lock on the target.
>> Toggle [Return] until AIM 7 appears in the display box, the RADAR
light comes on in the menu to the left of the radar screen, and a
green circle appears on the radar screen.
>> Steer to keep the green blip inside the inner green circle. The range
figure (lowest right number on the radar screen) will continue to
count down the range. When you are within Sparrow range (2-14 miles)
the RNG (range) light to the right of the radar screen comes on.If you
have been keeping the target within the green circle, the LOCK light
should come on soon after. Two vertical lines on either side of the
blip also appear when lock has been achieved (like |-| that!). These
lines are called "captain's bars."
Be sure to check your threat indicator when you get these captain's bars. Your
radar might have locked on to your wingman. Everytime you turn on the radar by
pressing [R], the radar locks on to the closest target. If you keep locking on
to your wingman,change your position relative to the potential targets or find
a target somewhere your wingman isn't.
If your threat indicator shows two enemies (solid diamonds) and no friendlies
(empty diamonds) and the radar shows three possible targets, it is possible
that your wingman does not have his radar on. Use [Shift]  to go to your
wingman's cockpit and turn on his radar with [R] so you can see him on your
threat indicator and get a better idea of who you are locked onto.
>> Switch on the Master Arm (select  on the numeric keypad) when the
MiG is in range and fire when the LOCK light comes on. The Sparrow
will guide to the target as long as you keep the target blip in the
captain's bars until it hits.
Sparrows are the weapon the Phantom was designed to carry. The Sparrow had not
been used in combat before the Vietnam war and had a very low PK (Probability
of Kill). Only one out of twelve fired hit a target. Launch two Sparrows at
the same time to increase your chance of success.
If you launch without a lock-on,a hit is unlikely. However, launching in these
conditions is not always foolish. At least a launch may unsettle the bandit.
This can be important if the bandit has you or another friendly in his sights.
NOTE: In this mission,you have a little easier time of it than the Navy had.
The missile's PK has been greatly improved. If you select a harder
level (see Part II), you will have the same problems that Navy did.
Using the Sidewinder
The AIM-9 Sidewinder is a heat-seeking missile whose descendants are still
being used today.
>> Select the Sidewinder by toggling [Return] until AIM 9 appears in the
weapons box, the HEAT light comes on in the menu to the left of the
radar screen, and a green circle appears on the radar screen.
>> Find your target in the same manner you used for the Sparrow. When the
target is within Sidewinder range (1-2 miles), point at the enemy's
rear so the heatseeker head on the Sidewinder can find its target.
Select  on the numeric keypad to master arm your weapons and use
[Spacebar] to launch missiles at the target. If you are having trouble
doing everything at once, remember that you can press [P] to pause the
game and press the necessary setup buttons, and then unpause the game
before pressing [Spacebar]. The Sidewinder is normally a "fire and
forget" weapon so you do not need to point at the target after missile
Sidewinders also had a low PK in Vietnam, though not as bad as the Sparrow.
Among their problems was they were note the all-aspect weapon they are now.The
pilot had to be on the tail of the target so the heat sensors in the missile
could get a good thermal picture of its exhaust.
NOTES: For ease of play, the default "easy targets" selection on the OPTIONS
menu allow you to shoot at any aspect of the target with a fair chance
of success. The "medium targets" option requires you to shoot at the
bandit's rear quarter to get a lock.The "hard targets" option requires
that you continue to point at the bandits rear while the missile is in
Using the Vulcan M61A1 20mm Cannon
The Navy never intended for the Phantom to carry a gun and,even after the need
for guns became obvious, didn't like mounting guns on their Phantoms. The
original design called for an entirely missile-armed plane, and only the U.S.
Air Force mounted the internal 20mm provided in this game. F-4J's, the type of
Phantom being flown here,did have on optional externally mounted 20mm gun pod,
however, so we are using that as an excuse to give you lots of opportunity to
shoot up the opposition. If you insist on doing things The Navy Way, never
select "GUNS" in your dogfights.
Only a few Navy F-4s actually carried the external pod, and it was strictly
meant as an air-to-ground weapon. It was very inaccurate for air-to-air use.
>> Select guns by pressing either [Return] or [Backspace] (you can also
use guns against ground targets)until GUNS comes up on the display box
and the GUN light comes on.
Guns should only be selected when the target is in visible range. For initial
detection, use the same methods you use for missile targets.
>> Use  on the numeric keypad to switch on the Master Arm when the
target is within a mile and fire (using [Spacebar]) when ready.
For best results, do not shoot until the bandit fills your screen. The bandit
should at least be bigger than the sighting circle. Remember that you and the
bandit are moving. You need to use what is called deflection shooting (or just
"leading a target"), which simply means you have to shoot where the enemy is
going to be, not where he is when you press the trigger.
NOTE: More than one hit is need to kill a MiG. Successful hits are marked by
small explosions on the surface of the MiG.
After the Battle
Once all the bandits have been shot down,you should head back to the ship. For
most missions, once the mission has been accomplished you can press [F5] to go
to the outside view and press [;] until the waypoint readout says "4 LAND."
Then press [A] to engage the autopilot to take you directly back to the ship.
For the BARCAP mission, however, you should use the FILE menu to select "End
Mission" as shown below.
You may not feel ready to attempt a manual landing at this stage, so try an
automatic landing by selecting [A] and settling back to watch the landing. If
you do feel like bringing the plane in yourself,see Part IX: Carrier Landings.
Alternatively, you can bring up the menu bar by pressing [F10] and selecting
"End Mission." This takes you directly to the Debriefing Room no matter what
stage of the game you're in. Needless to say, this procedure is for the more
lily-livered pilots. If you must use it (or if you just want to learn more
about menu options), see Part II: Menus.
When your hook has caught the wire and the aircraft has slowed down, you are
automatically moved to the Debriefing Room.
The statistics for the current mission are on display in the Debriefing Room.
See Part VII for information on analyzing these statistics. If you have earned
a medal or badge,you may get pulled out of the debrief at any time for a photo
opportunity. A word with your boss comes next; look to see if you are on the
Sierra Hotel Notice on his wall. (The Sierra Hotel Notice lists the top ten
pilots that have played the simulation.The derivation of the term Sierra Hotel
is in the Glossary.)
You can move through the screens that follow by selecting OK each time. This
will take you back to the Corridor Scene, ready for your next operation.
Selecting "Scramble" gives you a repeat of the previous mission.
Flying the F-4
by Col. Phil Handley, U.S. Air Force (retired)
On a cloudless day in August 1984,at Holloman AFB, I flew my last flight as an
active duty TAC pilot. That flight was made in the magnificent F-15 Eagle, a
plane I had flown and loved since 1977. Its flawless handling qualities are
transferred through a hydromechanical stick that makes it feel smaller in your
hand than the comparitively tiny F-5E. On my second ride in it at Luke AFB in
1977, I did a triple Immelmann - a vulgar display of brute power. Its huge
bubble canopy affords the pilot an unrestricted view of his 6 o'clock, an
attribute that had been sacrificed by aero design engineers since the era of
the F-86 Sabre. However, as much as I loved the F-15, to this day, absolutely
nothing stirs my memory banks or brings chills to my spine like the crack and
roar of an F-4's afterburners on takeoff roll.
First of all, it looks like a fighter ought to look with its drooped nose and
stabs, canted wing tips, and no-nonsense "don't mess around with me" stance.
Anybody looking at the business end of this fighter (especially an enemy) has
got to immediately understand the purpose for which it was built. When the
Thunderbirds and the Blue Angels flew them in their demonstration teams, the
ground shook, babies cried,and dogs barked. They were never better, and it was
a sad day when the Thunderbirds were forced to trade them in for T-38s (which
looked and sounded like a Tinkertoy by comparison). But as great as it was in
air shows, it was far more impressive doing the job it was designed for,a fact
indisputably demonstrated for over seven years during thousands of sorties in
the skies over Southeast Asia (SEA).
The All-Around Fighter
Officially named the Phantom II,but affectionately called "Double Ugly" or the
"McDonnell Rhinoceros" by the men who flew her, the F-4 will surely join great
fighters of the past like the Spitfire, P-51 and F-86 as a classic. It was and
continues to be a big, tough, mean-faced fighting machine that doesn't do a
single thing better than competing fighters.Thuds (F-105s) were faster and far
more stable bombing platforms, F-5s and all the MiGs could out-turn it, its
out-of-cockpit visibility wasn't that great, the original models were built
without a gun, it was plagued with tremendous adverse yaw, and the engines
smoked so badly at mil power that a defecting MiG pilot once stated that the
first time he ever saw one he thought it was on fire. But as a package deal,
the F-4 could do it all - Close Air Support, interdiction, air superiority or
reconnaissance. It was simply the best fighter in the skies over North
As a "mud beater" it hauled a lot of iron very far, very fast. It could fight
its way in and out of the target area, and with two of the most reliable
engines in the world (seemingly immune to throttle abuse and FOD), it would
bring you home, even with one of them shot out.
Unarmed and Unafraid
The RF-4C was a recce version,it carried high speed cameras instead of weapons
and had the thorny mission of post-strike reconnaissance. After a huge strike
package (called the eight hundred pound gorilla) had done its thing and really
gotten everyone north of the Red River stirred up, somebody had to go in and
get the pictures - a job that fell to the particularly gutsy and resourceful
aircrews that flew the RF-4C. Their motto, "Alone, Unarmed, and Unafraid,"
wasn't always totally accurate. On many occasions "alone" didn't apply because
it was decided that an element of armed F-4s should accompany them into the
just-vacated target area to protect them from MiG attack while they were
getting the pictures.These missions were appropriately called "The Run For The
Roses," because to a recce pilot,speed was life; the RF-4C was fast - boy, was
it fast. Since it was lighter to begin with, and had far less drag than its
accompanying missile-laden escorts, it was not uncommon for the flight leader
of the escort to find himself in first or second stage afterburner by the time
the recce hit mil power.When he really got serious and went to full burner, he
would simply walk away from his escort like it was parked and the escort would
find themselves all alone directly over the "City On The River" as the unarmed
recce disappeared at supersonic speed into the foothills.
In the air-to-air role,all versions of the Air Force's F-4 C, D and E bristled
with eight missiles and a gun (only the F-4E carried the gun internally).
Although the missiles didn't work that well, no one else's did either. Even if
their PK was low,AIM-7s launched at long ranges left huge white exhaust trails
that created great confusion, loss of tactical awareness and mutual support
within the MiG formations.
The Phantom had energy to burn (especially in the dense air at low altitude)
and, in the hands of a capable pilot, it was more than a match for all takers.
Against the much lower wing-loaded MiGs (especially the MiG-17 and MiG-19),you
simply could not play a "nose-pointing" game anywhere near the MiG's corner
velocity, as you would constantly find him pointing at you with his nose on
fire. Conversely, the F-4 could take the flight into the vertical where it
enjoyed a decided energy advantage, or drag it low into the dense air where it
not only had unbelievable energy, but where the MiG pilot's flight controls
became stiff and his airframe unstable at very high calibrated airspeeds.
Against a cannon-only armed MiG-17 or MiG-19, and F-4 pilot could "unload to
zero G" and extend to a range that allowed him to "pitch back" into the fight
with great energy and a better aspect angle.
Taking the fight into the vertical became a classic tactic,but by no means did
it ensure victory. In the hands of a skilled pilot, all of the MiGs (including
the MiG-17) could take it up with you. When this happened, you had to avoid
being "spit out" in the ensuing vertical rolling scissors before the MiG ran
out of energy and fell off. This maneuver was especially dangerous against the
MiG-21. It not only turned well, but also had the energy to go up with you a
long way. Once a vertical rolling scissors was joined, it was somewhat like
"riding a hog; there was no way to get off." Even if it meant flying the bird
down to zero airspeed, you had to do whatever was necessary to make him fall
off first. If you failed and tried to extend out of the fight,not only was the
MiG-21 difficult to extend from, the F-4's forty-foot afterburner cones made a
great heat source for his Atoll missiles.
The Controversial Guy In Back
Originally developed for the Navy,the F-4 was non-traditional in that it was a
two-seat fighter. The thinking was that there was more than enough for the
pilot to do in flying the jet without having to also run the fire control
system. The Navy assigned these tasks to the backseater, calling him a RIO
(Radar Intercept Officer). The Air Force,using their rule ensuring nothing was
ever called the same as in the Navy, dubbed their backseater the WSO (Weapon
Systems Officer). Those that flew the Air Force F-4s took it one step further
and simply called him the GIB (Guy In Back).Few tactical fighter controversies
rival the continuing debate over single seat vs. two-place cockpits, where
strong and passionate arguments are advanced all the way from the Pentagon to
the stag bar. Everyone has an opinion, and having flown both single seat and
two-place for a number of years, I am no exception.
Flying by yourself in today's fighters like the F-15, F-16, and F/A-18 works
just fine. Not only does it make you feel macho, but your individual
situational awareness and ability to act decisively is probably heightened. I
have no empirical data to support that assertion, it's just how I feel.
However, I don't think the single seat would have worked worth a damn in
Southeast Asia. For one thing, the avionics and weapons systems, although not
nearly as capable as today's, were difficult to operate really well. HOTAS
(Hands On Throttle And Stick) was non-existent. Clearing your own six o'clock
from the F-4's cockpit was difficult during patrol, and almost impossible once
engaged in a close-in fight. Simply put, the F-4 was designed to exploit the
state-of-the-art weapons systems of its day, and those systems did not easily
lend themselves to operation by a single individual.
In my opinion,if the GIB did nothing more than twist himself around to put his
eyeballs on your vulnerable cone during dogfights, he was worth his weight in
gold. But the truth of the matter is that he did infinitely more than that. I
have flown with lots of them, some better than others, but I was privileged to
fly most of my missions in SEA with two really great ones. They could pick
radar returns of MiGs from the clutter of a radar scope that looked to me like
a bowl of buttermilk. They could air refuel off tankers, and generally fly the
jet better from the back seat than some of the IPs. (Some GIBs saved their
pilot's life when they recovered the aircraft after he was incapacitated.)
Contrary to myth, they weren't all frustrated pilots that couldn't hack it,but
dedicated professionals that strapped their pink bodies to Double Ugly and did
their jobs four feet in trail with you, in one of the most sophisticated and
dangerous integrated air defense environments ever devised.One of those GIBs I
refer to was killed in action; the other won the ATC Commander's Trophy in
flight training, was top gun at F-4 RTU and F-15 RTU, and will soon be a
general officer. As whether future fighters should be single or two seater, I
could make arguments either way. But in the case of the F-4, you will not hear
this fighter pilot bad-mouth the GIB.
To this day, the F-4 continues to be a great fighter. In the active duty
forces,the RF-4C is still the primary recce aircraft for TAC, USAFE and PACAF.
The F-4G, a highly modified version of the slatted F-4E, performs the Wild
Weasel role of detection, identification and destruction or suppression of
enemy radars. Although no F-4C's are still in service, hundreds of F-4D and
F-4E models have been constantly updated and scrupulously maintained by Air
Force Reserve and Air National Guard units, where they are flown exceedingly
well by highly experienced and capable aircrews.
Not bad for an aircraft designed in the mid-1950s. But time marches on,and one
day, like all of the great ones, it too will pass from the scene.When it does,
I for one sincerely hope that it will take its place on a pedestal of honor at
TAC headquarters at Langley AFB (even if it was originally a Navy design), for
it has served us exceedingly well and has truly earned its place in the sun.
Colonel Phil Handley was a U.S.Air Force command pilot with 7,000 flying hours
and two combat tours in Southeast Asia (325 combat sorties) flying F-4D's and
F-4E's. He earned 21 Air Medals, 3 Distinguished Flying Crosses, 1 Silver Star
and is the only F-4 Phantom pilot to shoot down a MiG-19 with only guns.
Now you are a veteran of two operations, Morning Song and BARCAP. If you think
you are ready to take on the duties of the Commander Air Group (CAG) and plan
your own operation, keep reading. If you feel you need a little more combat
experience,go back and try another mission or two flying either an Intruder or
a Phantom.Return to the main corridor and select either "Intruder Pilot Brief"
or "Phantom Pilot Brief." You are taken to the Briefing Room, where you can
select from the available operations.
As described in the following chapter, Part V: You As CAG, it is possible to
modify any of these missions by changing their waypoints or the aircraft taken
SELECTING AN OPERATION
The following operation and mission description give you needed information to
make a selection of which missions you would like to fly in Flight of the
Intruder. Two terms are used that should be explained before you go on.
Operation The overall activities of usually several elements to
accomplish an objective. Each element of an operation
is called a mission.
Mission The individual task of one element or section (usually
two planes) of an operation. Missions have special
titles such as Wild Weasel (suppression of SAM and AAA
sites with anti-radiation missiles and ECM), MiGCAP
(Combat Air Patrol against MiG incursions) and so
forth. A full explanation of each mission title is
given in the Glossary at the end of this manual.
RULES OF ENGAGEMENT
In certain missions youcan find yourself having to deal with the same Rules of
Engagement (ROE) that bedevilled the U.S. military though most of the Vietnam
war. These are rules made by your superior officers that limit what you can do
in a combat. Breaking any of these rules can get a pilot court-martialled.
During the Linebacker period, most of the Rules of Engagement were lifted, but
in this simulation you can attempt to deal with the same problems real A-6 and
F-4 pilots had to deal with in the unfriendly skies over North Vietnam.
These rules (as they apply to this simulation) are:
1. You may only engage MiGs that are airborne or in the process of taking off
and which you or your wingman have visually identified as being bandits.
2. You may only attack mobile units: e.g. trucks, trains and off-shore enemy
boats. This excludes any boats around the Haiphong harbor unless they have
been designated as the mission's primary or alternate target.
3. You may only attack designated primary and alternate targets. You may not
attack targets of opportunity. If operating as CAG, you cannot designate a
target within ten miles of Hanoi or four miles of Haiphong.
4. You may attack any AAA, SAM or GCI site that is illuminating you with its
radar (thus taking a hostile action) or has actually fired at you.
5. You may not activate your Master Arm Switch when within ten miles of Hanoi
or four miles of Haiphong.
In the following Operation descriptions,the Special Instructions will indicate
which are covered by the Rules of Engagement. This coverage can be cancelled
through the CONTROL menu (see Part II: Menus). Also, if you are flying at
Lieutenant j.g. or Lieutenant levels, Rules of Engagement are turned off by
default. You will have to turn them on (if you want them) from the CONTROL
menu. If you are flying a mission that would ordinarily be covered under the
ROE, and you don't want them, turn off the ROE after selecting the mission.
If a pilot violates the Rules of Engagement, he might be court-martialled. In
this game, this means that the pilot is cashiered out of the Navy. The
likelihood of being court-martialled increases with the level of difficulty as
set on the LEVEL menu and OPTIONS menu. If you choose Lieutenant j.g. or
Lieutenant levels with no changes on the OPTIONS menu, you cannot be court-
martialled. If you fly at Lt. Commander level or above but all of your options
on the OPTIONS menu are set to Lieutenant j.g.options such as "Unlimited Arms"
(that is, no check mark next to "Limited Arms"),then the computer realizes you
are just playing a game & does not call you to account for your violations of
the Rules of Engagement. Alternately, you can turn off the "Engagement Rules"
on the CONTROL menu and not be called to account for anything you do at any
Besides violating the Rules of Engagement , you might be court-martialled (if
you are flying at a high level of enemy activity) for:
1. Attacking your own ships.
2. Attacking your own planes.
3. Ejecting if you have sustained no damage.
If you are court-martialled, you can start a new pilot with the same name and
callsign, but that pilot starts fresh with none of the points accrued by his
(There were illustrations of the patches you receive on successful completion
of these missions in the original manual, but they bore little resemblance to
the ones you actually see on your flight suit in the game, so I haven't
included them in the doc as other than textual descriptions.)
Operation BARCAP (Mig-21 patch)
Description: A dawn patrol around Yankee Station.
Objective: To intercept incoming threats from North Vietnam.Make sure there is
no penetration of the 40 mile exclusion zone by plane or boat.
Special Instructions: Incoming aircraft could be friendlies or bandits so
visual ID is necessary. Rules of Engagement apply.
Phantom Mission: MiGCAP
There is only one mission in this operation, and it is performed by a single
flight of Phantoms. This combat air patrol mission should stay at about ten
thousand feet off the deck. Maintain a patrol area just off the North Vietnam
Operation DECK ALERT (MiG-21 patch?)
Description: Scramble to meet a torpedo boat attack on the carrier.
Objective: To intercept three torpedo boats making a run on Yankee Station.
Special Instructions: Go in low to avoid enemy radar. Rules of Engagement
Phantom Mission: Ducks in a Barrel
One flight of F-4s must intercept and destroy the torpedo boat before they get
close enough to the USS Shiloh to launch torpedoes.
Operation TALLY HO YO (Smashed bridge patch)
Description: Single strike bombing mission with fighter escort and Iron Hand.
Objective: Destroy the Yen Bai railroad bridge.
Special Instructions: The bridge is defended by AAA. Secondary targets
(warehousing) exist in Yen Bai. Be prepared for targets of opportunity on the
railway. Rules of Engagement apply to all other targets. There is supposed to
be extensive MiG activity in the area.
Be sure to take plenty of fuel with you.
Phantom Mission: TARCAP
Precede the A-6s to the target area and eliminate any threatening MiGs.
Phantom Mission: Escort
Escort the A-6s. On arrival, be prepared for targets of opportunity.
Intruder Mission: Iron Hand
A 57mm AAA battery has been reported north of the bridge. This needs to be
silenced before the strike flight comes in. They are two minutes behind you.
Intruder Mission: Strike
Come in over the target two minutes after flak and MiG supression by the other
Intruders and the Phantoms. Use small smart weapons.
Operation BACK BREAKER (Smashed bridge patch)
Description: Single strike bombing mission with fighter escort for MiGCAP and
Objective: Destroy the notorious Thanh Hoa bridge. Secondary targets include
the AAA batteries radar guidance station and warehouses in the town.
Special Instructions: A low level direct approach up the estuary is suggested.
This bridge has stood up against intense bombardment since 1965. There is a
high likelihood of traffic in the vicinity of the bridge. Rules of Engagement
Phantom Mission: MiGCAP
One flight of Phantoms required on CAP northwest of Thanh Hoa for the duration
of the operation. Expect unfriendlies if the attack on the GCI is successful.
Phantom Mission: Escort
Accompany the A-6s to the target and eliminate any airborne opposition, then
take ground targets of opportunity. Remember the Rules of Engagement.
Intruder Mission: Iron Hand
Heavy AAA placements on both sides of the river and bridge have been reported.
The radar guidance unit to the southeast of the bridge is the main target.
Intruder Mission: Bullseye
Fly a low level route straight up the estuary.Your friends will keep AAA busy.
Operation MORNING SONG (Sinking boat patch)
Description: Single strike bomb mission without escort.
Objective: Destroy torpedo boats and missile cargo boats.
Special Instructions: This operation can be given to either a Phantom or
Intruder section. Rules of Engagement apply.
You are without escort on this mission, so don't linger.
Intruder Mission: Green Tree
There is only one mission in this operation, and it is performed by a single
flight of aircraft. Come in low over the sea from the east.Coast defenses will
provide shipping with air cover.
Phantom Mission: Blue Tree
There is only one mission in this operation, and it is performed by a single
aircraft. Come in low over the sea from the east. Coast defenses will provide
shipping with air cover.
Operation JULY 4TH EVE (MiG-17 over runway patch)
Description: Bombing mission.
Objective: Destroy the Phuc Nhac airfield in preparation for the July 4th
celebrations. Predicted bad weather should make a lone attack by a single A-6
Special Instructions: No MiGCAP is provided. Ripple MK82s along the length of
the runway. No second chances - you don't want MiGs chasing you.
Intruder Mission: Lone Ranger
No MiGCAP or SAM or flak suppression. The poor visibility makes conditions
ideal for an attack by a single Intruder.
Operation JULY 4TH DAY (Smiling bomb patch)
Description: Bombing mission.
Objective: Destroy the ammunition dumps reported in the town of Thanh Hoa. The
main warehouse is reported to be empty.Most stores are in buildings around the
Special Instructions: Do not hit the hospital. It is recognizable by a red
cross on its roof.
MiGCAP is provided to the northwest.
Phantom Mission: MiGCAP
Provide MiGCAP for the Intruders coming in from the northeast. Take a look at
the AAA batteries to the southwest of the town.
Phantom Mission: TARCAP
Provide CAP for the Intruders coming in from the southwest.
Intruder Mission: Fireworks
The safest approach seems to be from the southwest. This also puts the target
in transit. Phantoms will provide TARCAP.
Operation JULY 4TH REFRAG (Smiling bomb patch)
Description: Bombing mission.
Objective: Destroy the ammunition dumps reported in the town of Thanh Hoa. The
main warehouse is reported to be empty.Most stores are in buildings around the
Special Instructions: Do not hit the hospital. It is recognizable by a red
cross on its roof.
Intruder Mission: Fireworks
No MiGCAP or SAM or flak suppression. The poor visibility makes conditions
ideal for an attack by a single flight of Intruders.
Operation LIGHTS OUT (Bomb with spark and chimney patch)
Description: Double strike bomb mission with MiGCAP and Wild Weasel escort.
Objective: Destroy the thermal power plant at Hanoi.
Phantom Mission: MiGCAP
The main duty is to provide MiGCAP for the Intruders. They will be coming in
two waves. Make sure you have enough fuel to stay around until everyone is on
the way home. Expect company from the north.
Phantom Mission: Wild Weasel
SAM suppression is the main duty. However, the area is also defended by AAA.
Intruder Mission: Bomb Run One
Your objective is the main compressor house. It is the main building in the
complex. The power station is in a residential area, so use guided weapons.
Intruder Mission: Bomb Run Two
Go for the main compressor house if it is still standing. Otherwise go for the
chimney or conveyor.
Operation IRON RAIN I (MiG-17 over runway patch)
Description: A massive attack on Hanoi.This will take place in two operations:
Iron Rain I and Iron Rain II. (See Operation Iron Rain II.)
Objective: Knock out Phuc Yen Airfield, suppress flak, and destroy SAM radar
Phantom Mission: TARCAP
First in and last out. Engage any interceptors that are airborne.
Phantom Mission: Escort
Provide air cover for Intruders on low level attack on Phuc Yen airfield and
downtown Hanoi. Seek targets of opportunity.
Intruder Mission: Wild Weasel
Seek and destroy the area's radar guidance units.Keep the enemy radar stations
off the air.
Intruder Mission: Strike
The objective of this low level ripple bombing run is to close down the Phuc
Yen airfield. The runway is the prime target; you may also attack grounded
MiGs. Clear up anything that the Alpha Strike missed.
Operation IRON RAIN II (A-6 over smashed bridge patch)
Description: A massive attack on Hanoi (continued).This will take place in two
operations: Iron Rain I and Iron Rain II. (See Operation Iron Rain I.)
Objective: Bomb the Paul Doumer bridge.
Special Instructions: Iron Rain I should have weakened the defenses; however,
MiGCAP and Wild Weasel escorts are provided for incursion into this heavily
Phantom Mission: MiGCAP
MiGCAP to the north of the target is required to intercept bandits.
Phantom Mission: Escort
Pick up your charges before going feet dry and provide CAP over the target.
Phantom Mission: Wild Weasel
There are over 84 SAM sites to keep you busy, mostly to the south of the city.
Intruder Mission: Knockout
This is an interdiction strike on the Paul Doumer bridge. A low level run from
the northeast is advised. Direct hits on the spans are required.
Operation ALPHA STRIKE (Dock crane patch)
Description: A bombing run using all the available aircraft on a hitherto
Objective: The objective of this Alpha Strike is to inflict damage on the
Haiphong docks and shipping facilities.
Special Instructions: Do not attack the neutral shipping in the harbor,even if
they shoot at you.
Phantom Mission: MiGCAP
Two sections of F-4s have been allocated to provide combat air patrol to the
south of Haiphong. MiG-21s have been reported in the area.
Intruder Mission: Ballgame
The two big dockside warehouses are the main targets this morning. Also target
any shipping in the bay.
Intruder Mission: Wild Weasel
SAM suppression is the main duty on this early morning mission. You will be
protecting an A-6 flight which will target the dockside warehouses.Be prepared
for targets of opportunity in the dock.
Operation HUNTER KILLER (2 F-4s patch)
Description: An all-out attack on an aggravating SAM site.
Objective: The six-launcher SAM site south of Hanoi is the target.Shrikes only
hit the radar van, and the site is active again quickly. The bigger punch of
Hunter Killer tactics are needed.
Special Instructions: Take out the GCI first to increase your chances. Don't
make more than one run on the target,and use the biggest bomb load possible to
do the most destruction. Rules of Engagement apply.
Phantom Mission: Escort
Two sections of F-4s are tasked to escort the A-6s. If possible, silence the
light AAA to the south.
Intruder Mission: Strike
The objective is to destroy the site. Target the launchers. The Wild Weasels
will get the radar.
Intruder Mission: Wild Weasel
Destroy the GCI and then keep the site busy so that the bomber can attack with
The Most Dangerous Game
by former U.S. Air Force Capt. Norman Cosand (1969-1976)
The Hunter Killer mission was, without a doubt, one of the toughest and most
dangerous missions flown over North Vietnam in 1972. The Hunter Killer "team"
(term used by Fighter Pilots) was comprised of two elements: 1. The Hunter
element - two Wild Weasel F-105G's in the lead armed with AGM 78 missiles (an
air-to-ground missile designed to home in and destroy SAM site radar vans); 2.
The Killer element - two F-4E's armed with CBU-52 (cluster fragmentation bombs
designed to destroy metallic SAM missiles, transportation vehicles and radar
vans) ready to roll in on a moment's notice on the exposed SAM site. The
aircrew members who flew the mission were all individually selected by the
F-105 and F-4E Squadron Commanders because of the severe hazards associated
with multiple SAM sites. Each SAM site was ringed with hostile 23mm and 37mm
AAA gun sites. North Vietnam (in particular Hanoi) was considered to be one of
the most heavily defended enemy countries ever known to aerial warfare. SAM
sites carpeted the entire breadth of North Vietnam with an extra abundant
concentration of defenses protecting the cities of Hanoi and Haiphong. Flying
over the far reaches of North Vietnam was a daily "fireworks show" for the
aircrews from Korat AFB in Thailand who flew the Hunter Killer missions."First
in and last out" was a standard operating procedure - time on target was
longer, the defenses more intense and survival rate reduced. The Hunter Killer
team was no picnic.
It was dark and humid at 4:18 A.M. when I arose from a restless sleep in my
Hootch at Korat AFB. I rapidly threw on my flight suit, put on my jungle boots
and made my way to the Squadron Briefing room by 4:30 A.M. (via our reliable
air crew van).Tension was written on the faces of the Captains and Lieutenants
who were scheduled for today's Hunter Killer mission deep into North Vietnam.
Our target was two SAM sites just southwest of Hanoi. With maps, classified
photographs, weapon settings and enemy defense updates, I join the other team
members for a comprehensive target briefing at 5:00 A.M. Briefing synopsis:
"The weather is marginal en route (thunderstorms)but improving over Hanoi; the
main target for the Strike Force (F-4s from bases in Thailand and South
Vietnam) is the Thai Nguyen Steel Plant north of Hanoi; all MiG bases, SAM
sites and AAA gun sites are active and operational; our Hunter Killer teams
(call sign "Eagle") are to suppress two SAM sites prior to the Strike Force's
arrival and then remain in the target area to back up friendly forces - fuel
permitting!" Breakfast at the Officer's Club was gulped down and barely
digested. Takeoff occurs at 7:00 A.M. (exactly on time); we fill up with fuel
from a KC 135 at 7:30 A.M. and drop off the tanker at 8:20 A.M. "Eagle flight
topped off," radios the Hunter lead as we ingress to the target area with full
fuel tanks and weapons checked for readiness. As we approach the target area I
can hear the heavy breathing of the pilot in the front seat of my F-4E as we
receive "Bandit" calls from MiG-19 and MiG-21 aircraft launching from several
MiG bases surrounding Hanoi. I quickly discover that we are now 15 miles from
two approaching MiG-19 aircraft. "Eagle Flight, Bandits attacking." radios the
flight lead of another Hunter Killer team off to my left. Two Atoll missiles
zip under my aircraft and disappear in the clouds behind me. We are still 100
miles from our target; the pulse rate picks up; it is going to be on of those
rare days when both MiGs and SAMs are in joint defense of North Vietnam.
As we approach Hanoi from the Southwest, the lead F-105 launches an AGM-78 and
quickly eliminates a SAM radar van from a site just east of the city.
Travelling at 480 nautical miles per hour, I scramble in the back seat with my
North Vietnam maps and target photos directing my element of two F-4Es to the
first targeted SAM site, while the F-105G element pulls off to our left to
provide coverage. I concentrate on the detail of my map and compare the map to
rivers, roads and canals below; again I cross-check my map for landmarks. The
target photo on the first SAM site is finally matched to a section of road
near a small canal below.
A sigh of relief - no time or fuel was wasted, we are here to do the job we
came for. The first SAM site is identified, we are ready to roll in at my 60
degrees of dive and supersonic speeds.My throat is dry and sweat races down my
face as we pull 7+ g's coming off the first target. Half of our CBU-52 bomb
load was just deposited on the SAM site below with thousands of pieces of
shrapnel flying in every direction ensuring destruction of multiple surface-to
air missiles and radar equipment. As the second F-4E pulls off the target and
tucks close to my right wing, I pull my North Vietnam maps from a large clamp
fastened to my G-suit and begin to immediately identify new landmarks below in
order to expedite our ingress to the second target SAM site. Clouds partially
obscure the second SAM site as we visually acquire the target.The ground below
is suddenly lit up like a Christmas tree as AAA gun barrel flashes send a
thousand rounds of 23mm and 37mm directly at our flight. Large red and orange
silver dollar-sized tracers are close to my canopy; I can hear the "snap,
crackle and pop" of the tracers as we point our nose at the second SAM site.
"Eagle 3, SAM at 6:00 (six o'clock), break now," radios the lead F-105. My
vision is gone; however, my mind is clear, I have "blacked out" as we pull
nearly 9 g's to avoid the SAM (travelling at 3 times the speed of sound) that
was homing in our tailpipe. With vision now restored and our nose pointed
skyward, we turn back toward the target for a second round.That SAM was alone,
there would have been no way out had we been hit, diving at the ground and
travelling at supersonic speeds. "Snap, crackle and pop" as dozens of tracers
surround my F-4E while again diving at the second SAM site."Thump," I feel the
aircraft shake and lighten up as our last half of CBU-52 bomb load is released
on top of the target. The second F-4E in our element also drops his CBU-52 and
rejoins on our wing. Two SAM sites destroyed, all aircraft and air crew are
We are critically low on fuel as we rejoin the F-105 element. Our heading is
220 degrees (southwest heading) as we egress back to Thailand. A KC 135 tanker
is waiting for us over the border of Thailand and vectors north over Northern
Laos to meet us.We are thankful for the tanker aircrews who risk 57mm and 86mm
over hostile territory to refuel our empty tanks.
It has been a memorable day for the air crews of Eagle Flight as well as other
flights who flew the Hunter Killer mission deep into North Vietnam that day.We
are all thankful to be alive. We are also thankful that soon we can see an end
to the war with North Vietnam, have our prisoners of war returned and set our
feet once again on fertile American soil.
Captain Norman Cosand flew for the U.S. Air Force between 1969 and 1976.He was
the Guy In Back in an F-4E and a Bomber/Navigator on an F-111. He flew 82
missions over North Vietnam including 41 missions over Hanoi as part of a
Hunter Killer team. He received four Distinguished Flying Crosses, eleven Air
Medals and one Vietnam Cross of Gallantry.
Each time you complete a mission and successfully land your aircraft, you are
taken to the Debriefing Room, where you can view your statistics for the
current operation as well as the overall average for the entire tour. To start
a new tour of duty, delete the HI-SCORE.DAT file from the data disk.
The important statistic is the success rating (SR). You get a score for each
mission you attempt. Your personal SR is calculated by totalling the scores
associated with those events which were directly attributable to you, as shown
on the information screen, and multiplying the score by the rank multiplier
shown in Part II. For instance, you only get credit for destroying the primary
if you were in control of the aircraft which dropped the bomb that destroyed
The initial debriefing screen, gives you two scores. The score on the left is
your final SR, after applying the rank multiplier.The one on the right is your
base score before the multiplier. The scores shown to the left are identical
because the mission was flown at Lieutenant j.g. rank, which has a multiplier
If your total exceeds 100, you earn the right to wear the Operation Badge. The
scores for the various events are added together to provide the Air Wing's
SUCCESS RATING TABLE
Primary target destroyed 100
Secondary target destroyed 50
Unassigned ground target destroyed 1
SAM destroyed 25
MiG destroyed 25
AAA destroyed 10
PT boat destroyed 10
Guided missile on target 14
Unguided missile on target 12
Truck destroyed 5
Carrier destroyed -1000
Hospital destroyed -1000
U.S. aircraft destroyed -50
Guided missile released -4
Unguided missile released -2
Explanation of Icons
[I] Information This displays the Cumulative Scores Screen for the air
wing and the individual pilot.
AVE (Average) on the screen refers to the air wing and pilot's average ratings
(which are also reflected in the Sierra Hotel ratings described later). The
totals are cumulative scores that always increase.
As the duty pilot, your most recent landing record is displayed in the form of
a set of colored disks between brackets. The most recent landing is the disk
furthest to the right under the "DUTY PILOT LANDINGS" entry:
Color Rating Score
Green OK 10
Black No comment 0
Red Dangerous -10
[W] Waypoint Review Every few seconds the position of every aircraft is
recorded. This information can show the aircraft track
in review. It is possible to compare the ideal track
following waypoints against the actual track. As the
positions are being recorded relatively infrequently,
it will not always be possible to completly review the
track during a dogfight when direction changes are
fast and furious.
[P] Camera This provides a record of your activities as if taken
by a camera. Use the keys given to review your
snapshots of the mission taken by using the "Take
Photo" option in the FILE menu (see Part II: Menus) or
pressing [*] on the numeric keypad while the game is
playing. Select [P] to see the previous photo, [N] to
see the next photo, and [D] to delete the photo
currently on the screen.
Use the arrow keys to pan around the picture. The knob
in the bottom right corner of the monitor shows a
letter corresponding to the photo. Review the photos
taken in your previous mission by selecting "Slide
Show" from the FILE menu.
Note: The ST version saves photos in NeoChrome format,
so you can load them into an art package and play
around with them if you like!
[A] Airplane The "Video Replay" shows the videotape you took with
the "Camera On" option on the FILE menu. Select [P] to
play the current tape,[Cursor Right] to go to the next
tape, [S] to save the current videotape to disk (the
name you can give the tape can only have six letters),
and [L] to load a previously-saved video.
Aside from using the FILE menu option, you can also
activate and deactivate the video recorder with [V].
You can record more than one sequence per flight, but
there is a finite length.However, if you find yourself
with a sequence you just have to save & your tape has
run out, you can select [O] to reset the recorder.This
wipes out all your previous records for that mission.
During the video playback, you can change to outside
and tracking views, change the vertical and horizontal
orientation, and fast forward by pressing [Tab]. You
can exit the playback at any time by pressing [Esc] &
pause the playback by pressing [P].
You can review the videos taken in your previous
mission by selecting "Video Replay"from the FILE menu.
Saving to Disk
With the 200K or so of free space on the data disk, you can save a couple of
video sequences; for 10K you get around 10 seconds of film. Videotape is given
a .SEQ extension,and it might be possible to save it to a separate disk if you
simply insert your 'videos' disk in the drive before saving/loading videos,
the game should recognise that it isn't the data disk, and will hopefully just
go ahead, and then ask for the data disk back afterwards.
The Sierra Hotel screen lists the top 10 pilots who have ever played from your
disk - the "best of the best." The score given with each name is the average
score for that pilot. A pilot with one good mission and several bad ones will
disappear from the Sierra Hotel very quickly unless he has no competition. If
none of your pilots have received any points, then the Sierra Hotel will still
be filled with "Rookies."
Select [I] to return to the Cumulative Score Screen described above. Select
[Return] to return to the Duty Roster. From there, you can start another
mission or exit the game.
The Sierra Hotel screen appears after every mission and you can access it from
the FILE menu before a mission by selecting "Sierra Hotel."
Every time you successfully complete an operation, a badge is sewn onto your
flight suit. Occasionally you will see a picture of yourself and your crewmate
in your flying suits. As you progress through the simulation, you may see your
suit become gradually more colorful as you earn the right to wear the badges.
Also, the "trophy case" in the upper left portion of the screen will show all
the ribbons associated with the medals you have won during the simulation.
You can also access the most recent version of this screen from the FILE menu
before a mission by selecting "Awards."
There is another way in which your suit can become colorful. If the image on
the award screen shows your flight suit dabbed with paint, it means that you
have not landed on your carrier, the USS Shiloh, but instead on the other
carrier sharing Yankee Station.Common practice on the carriers off Vietnam was
to give the interloping aircraft a dabbing with whatever paint came handy, but
in this game we paint you, the pilot.
Medals had their beginning in such knightly orders as the Knights of the Bath
of England. A medal signifies that the person receiving it has done more than
was called for. In Vietnam, some flyers began to feel that they were getting
their medals just for waking up in the morning.Some pilots felt that they only
got a medal if they fouled up a mission and took damage. If they did it right,
no-one seemed to notice.
In this game we give you medals for doing it right, though the Purple Heart
might be considered an award for making a mistake.If you deserve an award, the
Award Screen will appear (see above) and show a frame displaying:
Purple Heart Air Medal
Awarded when Awarded for
recipient has been every ten
injured in action missions
Distinguished Flying Cross
Awarded for destroying two
SAM sites, one MiG and
three gun sites in one
Medal of Honor
Navy Cross primary and
Awarded for targets of an
downing one MiG operation
while it was
IN THE COCKPIT
The following is a description of the instruments found in the Intruder & the
Phantom. As you might expect,the two aircraft have many instruments in common.
In particular,you will find that the important flight instruments are arranged
in the traditional "T" on both aircraft. This makes it easier to change from
one aircraft type to the other.Nonetheless, you should be aware that there are
important differences between the two aircraft types, and it's a good idea to
take the time to familiarize yourself with them. The instruments are displayed
with their names later on in this section.
In real life, both the Intruder and the Phantom rely on a crew of two. In the
Intruder the crew sit side by side, while in the Phantom the RIO sits behind
the pilot. In one of our few (ha!) departures from reality, we have designed
this simulation so that the aircraft can be flown by one person. We have
attempted to do this while still maintaining as realistic a cockpit as
Note that the HUD is not displayed here, as it displays nothing other than gun
or bomb sights, and the AOA Indexer on the left-hand support.
Intruder: As the pilot you sit on the left side of the cockpit. On your front
view you can see the flight instrumentation. On your left 45 deg. view, you
look over the side of the aircraft. On your right 45 deg. view, you look into
the B/N's side of the cockpit at the stores and warning lights.
Phantom: The front view displays the flight instrumentation. Both the left and
right 45 degree views can be used to look over the side of the aircraft.Stores
and warning lights are displayed on a look-down front view (as shown here;
press ] to get it in the game).This arrangement reflects the narrow but high
front panel fitted onto the Phantom. The look-down at the instrument view
should be selected only for brief periods. You should have your head up and
looking out of the cockpit 90% of the time. Your instruments are not trying to
kill you, but many unfriendly objects outside your plane are doing their best
to bring you down.
The HUD Dot
There is a green dot on the Head-Up Display (HUD) on the front windscreen of
both airplanes.This dot shows your stick's current position; it is provided as
a convenience for mouse users and a reminder for joystick and keyboard users.
Instruments In Common
The following descriptions apply to both the Intruder and the Phantom (though
some instruments may not look exactly the same, they will be similar in
Attitude Director Indicator (ADI): The ADI (sometimes called
the "level ball") helps register your plane's position relative
to the horizon as it rolls and pitches in any direction. The
ADI is of vital importance in a dive because you use it to get
your dive angle. Remember for manual dive bombing everything
must be right: dive angle, speed and height. See 'Bombing
Missions' later on in this part of the manual.
Compass: The compass shows your aircraft magnetic directional
heading. For the purposes of this simulation, you can assume
the compass has no problems with deviation and variation.
Altimeter: The altimeter's small needle rotates 360 degrees for
every 1,000 foot change in altitude. The large needle rotates
360 deg. for every 100 foot change in altitude. The digits
display the altitude in 1,000s of feet.
Airspeed Indicator (ASI): The ASI consists of a dial calibrated
in knots TAS (see Glossary). The zero position is at 12
o'clock. One revolution represents 1,200 KTS on the F-4 and 600
KTS on the A-6.
Vertical Velocity Indicator (VVI): This dial measures climb and
descent rate in 1,000s of feet per minute. The zero position is
at 9 o'clock. Climb is represented by a clock-wise movement of
the needle. Three o'clock represents 6,000 ft/min.
Angle of Attack Indicator (AOA): This dial measures angle of
attack in degrees. The zero position is at 9 o'clock, 30 deg.
at 12 o'clock. Increased AOA is represented by a counter-
Fuel Gauges: When the tank is full (16,000 lb of fuel) the
needle points to 6 o'clock. The needle moves counter-
clockwise to the zero position at 9 o'clock.
Tachometer: This dial measures the engine RPMs in percentages
of maximum: 0% at 12 o'clock and 100% at 10 o'clock. On the F-4
Phantom, the measurement cannot go below 70%.
Clock: This shows a standard analog display.The actual cockpit
clocks show 24-hour "military time."
Threat Indicator and Panel
The threat indicator is also known as the Radar Warning Receiver (RWR). It
tells you when you are being illuminated by someone else's radar and gives you
an indication of who is illuminating you based on the wavelength of the radar
hitting you. The indicators are:
Empty diamond Friendly aircraft if its radar is on
Filled diamond MiG if its radar is on
Filled red box SAM in the air
Empty red box Any active radar
Grey "hat" Ship
The Threat Indicator Panel alerts you to enemy activity through warning lights:
Missile SAM on the way
SAM SAM site radar detected
AAA AAA radar detected
I-Band MiG radar detected
GCI NV Intercept Station detected
Angle of Attack (AOA) Indexer(to left of HUD): The AOA Indexer
is used primarily to assist in landing the plane. As the
discussion in the next section shows, the plane needs to
approach the runway at the right angle and speed when landing.
If your speed is too high or low, the AOA Indexer remains
Automatic Carrier Landing System (ACLS) Indicator: The ACLS
Indicator assists you when making an instrument landing (called
"following the needle"). The ACLS has two principal components:
the Glide Slope Deviation (GSD) scale and the Localizer
Deviation (LD) scale. See Part IX: Carrier Landings for details
on how to use this gauge.
>> Press [F7] to activate the AOA Indexer and ACLS (see Part IX: Carrier
Sensitivity Indicator: This readout indicates the degree of
sensitivity of your aircraft to turning, diving and climbing.
Sensitivity varies from a low of 0 to a high of 3.At a setting
of 1,the plane is less sensitive to directional changes and is
easier to control. At a setting of 3, the turn, dive and climb
characteristics of the simulation are virtually identical to those of the
actual aircraft.(The most realistic setting is a sensitivity of 3 while flying
at the rank of Captain.) The default sensitivity is 2.
>> Press [F3] and [F4] to increase and decrease the sensitivity.
Flare and Chaff Indicators: Flares are designed to confuse
heat-seeking missiles by providing extraneous sources of heat
for them to follow. Dispense flares with the [Keypad 0] key.
The Flare Indicator shows how many flares you have remaining on
the plane. Each plane starts off with 50 flares. You can turn
"Limited Flares" off for an easier game.
Chaff are packages of tiny foil strips designed to confuse
radar-guided missiles. Press [Keypad .] to drop chaff. The
Chaff Indicator shows how much chaff you have remaining on
your plane. Each plane starts off with 50 packages of chaff.
You can turn "Limited Chaff" off for an easier game.
Reading the COMED
The colored dots on the COMED (and waypoint map) screen represent:
Red SAM site
Red Inside Yellow AAA site
Grey Targets and built-up areas
Pulsing square Your plane
Pulsing small square Most recent enemy plane
reported by Red Crown
Phantom System Lights
The lights described below indicate the particular function.
AUTO Automatic Pilot (left of COMED, below AOA Indexer)
STALL Stall warning (below AUTO)
FLAP Flaps (below STALL)
A BRK Air Brakes (below FLAP)
VIDEO Video (below A BRK)
o o o UC Landing Gear * (left of FLAP and HEAT)
AA HOOK Hook Down (below clock, left of Master Arm)
FIRE Fire (below Flare/Chaff, right of COMED)
CAUTION Master Caution (right of FIRE)
ECM ECM (above CAUTION)
* The letters "UC" stand for Undercarriage, another term for Landing Gear.
The MILS Depression Reading tells both the A-6 (below COMED) and F-4 (right of
COMED, below PULL light) pilot the current Mil setting (see 'Bombing
Techniques' later on in this part of the manual). It always displays zero
until the Mil setting is changed. See the cockpit display.
The EMIT Light on the A-6 (left of the RPM) or the ECM Light on the F-4 will
illuminate if you turn on the ECM pod. If you have an ECM pod, toggle it on by
pressing [E]. See the cockpit display.
Intruder Warning Lights
A highlighted word in one of these panels indicates something is wrong.
From top left to bottom left:
FLAPS The Wing flaps have been damaged and are frozen in their
present state. For example, if they were up when the damage
occurred, they stay up. Because flaps help curb excessive
speed, the plane may be much harder to land.On the other hand,
if the flaps were down when they were damaged, they stay down.
This hampers the plane's maneuverability and prevents it from
reaching top speed. To attain a needed speed takes more thrust
and therefore uses more fuel.
STORES Weapons cannot be released from external stores.
BRAKES The Brakes light indicates a failure in the airbrake system.If
the airbrakes were open when the damage occurred, they stay
open.This is similar to Flaps damage (see above) and seriously
threatens your plane's maneuverability, forcing it to fly at
reduced airspeed. If the airbrakes were closed when the damage
occurred, they stay closed, making the plane harder to land in
ECM The threat indicator is out, and ECM (Electronic
Countermeasures) is unavailable. You will have to rely on
visual sightings and messages from friendly forces.
RADAR The radar display is inoperable.
DIANE The DIANE display is inoperable.
Bottom panel seems to be unused in this game. From top right to bottom right:
ENG PORT Partial or complete loss of power in the port engine.
ENG STB Partial or complete loss of power in the starboard engine.
FUEL LK A fuel leak.You will have to judge how serious this is. If you
have not reached your target yet,you should probably turn back
LOW FUEL When this light comes on, you have a full scale emergency. You
need first clearance onto a green deck.
NAV The map display is not functioning.
OXY LOW Indicates a drop in cabin pressure, usually caused by a bullet
hole. Don't fly above 27,000 feet or you will black out, even
when flying straight and level.
Intruder Multiple Weapon Selection Panel
The Intruder's Multiple Weapon Selection Panel is positioned on the right
forward 45 degree view. Press  or [Shift]  on the numeric keypad.
Weapons on Station: Set of five numbers running along the top. These indicate
the number of weapons on each station.
Master Arm Light: Light in a box marked H and ARM.
Toggled with  on the numeric keypad. This must be on
before weapons can be released.
Description Panel: Currently showing WALLEYE, this
displays the type of store at the selected station.
Note that mixed store stations are not allowed.
Single/Ripple: Toggle using  on the numeric keypad.
Single means one weapon is released on each trigger
press. Ripple means that all weapons on that station
are released at one second intervals after pressing the
trigger. Weapons on the wing stations are released in
pairs to maintain a balanced aircraft. Ripple is not
available for all weapon options.
Direct/DIANE/Dive Toss: This option is toggle using the
 key on the numeric keypad. It is not available on
all weapon modes because it determines the bombing
Active Station: (5 lights in box with BOMB and MSL marked on it) By pressing
[Backspace], the active station can be changed.The active station is indicated
by activating the light below the weapons on the station number.
Phantom Warning Light Panel
Refer to the Warning Light Panel explanations for the
Intruder, above. The Phantom F-4 panel lights are
identical except for the BURNER light in place of the
DIANE light. The BURNER light comes on when you can no
longer select the afterburner due to damage.
Displays Unique to the Phantom
Multiple Weapon Control Panel: This shows you which
weapons you are currently using.
Heading Indicator: This duplicates the compass so you don't
have to go to the lower cockpit to find your current compass
Optical Sight: (In centre of HUD) When shooting guns or rockets, fill this
circle with the target and pull the trigger (press [Spacebar]).
Pull Up Light: This is a warning light that tells you when you are
about to hit the ground.
Rounds Remaining: This shows you how many rounds you
have left to fire from your gun. To properly simulate
the lack of a gun in the Navy's Phantom, players who
have chosen the "Limited Arms" option have no
ammunition for their gun. This is the default setting
if you are flying at the Lt. Commander, Commander and
The Phantom Radar Screen
The F-4 in this simulation has a radar screen that very closely emulates the
radar used by Phantoms over Vietnam (yeah sure).
The sweep line is the line that constantly sweeps from left to right; it
updates the picture as it passes. The circle in the middle shows you which
targets can be locked on, and the line across the circle; the horizon line;
lets you know where you are in relation to the world.
When the radar has locked onto a target, "captain's bars" show up around the
radar image of the target, as seen in the image below.
Caution: if the radar is pointed at the ground,the screen fills up with static
and it is virtually impossible for the radar to lock on a target.
Reading the Radar Screen
Many of the weapons available to you are radar-guided in some way. Others let
you use the radar as an assist in locating the target. Unless indicated in a
following weapon description, the radar screens on both aircraft will have a
constant radar readout of five numbers - three on the upper left of the screen
and two on the upper right. In all cases, these numbers mean:
Airspeed Enemy Altitude
Vertical Speed - - Distance
Pitch: The current pitch of the aircraft in degrees. A positive or negative
number indicates whether the airplane is climbing or diving.
Vertical Speed: The vertical speed in feet per second. A positive or negative
number indicates whether the airplane is climbing or diving.
Airspeed: The true airspeed in knots.
Enemy Altitude: This indicator only appears on the F-4 Phantom. When the radar
is showing the distance to a flying target, a number appears here showing the
altitude of the target in 1,000s of feet.
Bearing: The degrees you must turn to be either pointing toward your next
waypoint (or for the F-4 Phantom) a possible flying target if the plane's
weapons are in air-to-air mode.
Distance: The number of nautical miles to either your next waypoint(or for the
F-4 Phantom) a target if the plane's weapons are in air-to-air mode.
If you have selected "Medium" or "Hard Targets" from the OPTIONS menu,you will
not get any information on potential targets until you have a radar lock.
Navigation information(relative bearing and distance to the waypoint) will not
show up if you have activated your air-to-air weaponry with [Return]. Instead,
the spaces will be filled with Xs.If you want to concentrate on your waypoints
instead of your next air-to-air target, turn on your air-to-ground weaponry
F-4 Phantom G-Force Gauge
The G-Force Gauge on the F-4 tells you how many g's you are pulling at
any time. Remember that the Phantom is not designed to take more than
7 g's for more than a few seconds. Too many g's for too many seconds
and the plane will fall apart.
Note that the displayed readout is displaying a reading of 3.7, not 37.
You may notice that the IFF (Identification Friend or Foe)is missing from this
simulation. The IFF is a radio device that can determine which plane in the
area is a friend because friendly planes transmit a certain signal that enemas
do not. The IFF was usually turned off over Vietnam because it broadcast your
plane's location to the enemy.
This is a section on how to fly your jets and, most important,maneuver them in
air combat. But first, let's deal with some of the basics of jet flying.
THE NATURE OF G FORCES
The key to a jet being a good Air Combat Maneuvering (ACM) aircraft is in its
ability to "pull g's" (also known as "turn g's"). G's represent the force of
gravity that is being applied to the plane and its pilot & is commonly called
"centrifugal force."G's dictate how fast and how tight a plane can turn at any
given speed. All other things being equal, the plane that can turn the fastest
usually wins the battle.
The effects of g forces on aircraft and pilots must be understood by anyone
entering the air combat arena. Strictly speaking,a force of 1g is equal to the
force exerted by gravity on a body "at rest."When a jet is flying straight and
level, the lift generated by the plane's wings offsets its weight,to the point
that both plane and pilot are experiencing a gravity force equal to 1g.This is
equivalent to what you might feel while walking along a level street. Since
increasing units of g forces are used to indicate the increasing force to
which a body is subjected when accelerated, a higher "positive" number of g's
represents a higher force of gravity.Whenever you pull the nose into a turn or
climb (by pulling back on the stick or increasing the bank angle), you'll pull
an increasing amount of positive g's. You've probably seen the centrifuge used
in astronaut training that tests a person's ability to withstand centrifugal
force. Whirling a person around in a circle at increasing speeds is very
similar to what a pilot feels in a banking turn, and many of these turns are
performed almost instantly. You begin to appreciate not only the pilot's
ability to withstand the force, but the plane's ability as well. Pushing the
stick forward results in pulling less or even negative g's, since you're not
opposing the force of gravity anymore per se.
Positive g's push a pilot into the seat. At 7 g's, your body experiences 7
times the normal gravitational force.This means that your 10 pound head weighs
70 pounds! At forces greater than 9 g's, there is so much pressure that the
blood stops flowing in your head, causing you to black out. A blackout results
in a loss of vision or passing out completely.
On the other hand, negative g's force the blood into your head. Your body and
plane can tolerate many more positive g's than the negative g's. Excessive
negative g's(greater than -3) cause the blood vessels in your eyes to rupture.
This is commonly referred to as a redout, which is just as dangerous as a
The typical fighter of the Vietnam era could only tolerate a maximum of 7 g's.
Even in 1985, an F-15 pilot pulled his plane into a high g climb with a full
load of missiles and external tanks, which caused his plane to go out of
control and disintegrate. You should take special note of this, especially if
you're carrying any external stores.
Turning and G Forces
Pulling and pushing on your stick controls turn radius and g forces. Banking
your plane at steeper angles results in an increase in g forces and a decrease
in turning radius. Pulling back on your stick adds additional g's. Pushing
forward subtracts g's. Turns with excessive g's (more g's than are required to
maintain an angle of bank) pull the plane into a higher angle of climb. Turns
made with less than the required g's cause the plane to drop.
The Flight Performance Envelope
The ability to pull g's is dependent upon a plane's flight performance
envelope. Simply put, this is a measure of how many g's the plane can pull
going at what speed and what altitude.In general, the faster a plane is going,
the higher it has to be to pull a high-g turn. However, the plane also needs
atmospheric density for its control surfaces to "bite" into,so after a certain
height (different for each plane), you simply cannot turn it tight enough to
pull high g's.Flying beyond the envelope (chasing too many demons too far) can
result in a stall or total loss of control of your plane.
Pulling Out of a Stall
Flying beyond your plane's performance envelope can result in a stall.Learning
how to pull yourself out of a stall can be a life-saving matter. If you're
flying too fast and trying to pull too many g's, all you have to do is relax
off the stick.
Stalling because you've lost too much airspeed is a completely different
matter. You can convert altitude into energy (airspeed) by going into a dive
until you've built up enough airspeed and control before pulling out. Pulling
out too soon or too hard can result in another stall.
Keep Your Energy High
The usual mistakes made by a rookie are flying the aircraft too slow or too
Those flying their planes too slow are under the false assumption that slower
speeds result in tighter turns and advantage during high-g ACM (Air Combat
Maneuvers) environments. Pulling high g's bleeds off (or reduces) airspeed.
Flying too slow results in lower g capabilities. Pulling g's can force your
airspeed to fall below the stall rate, resulting in an uncontrollable dive.
Remember, speed is energy, and energy helps you get in and out of combat.
Running out of airspeed (energy) is no fun in the heat of battle.
On the other hand,rookies have been known to carry this too far and attempt to
dogfight flying at Mach 2 (over 1,000 knots). Trying to maneuver at Mach 2 is
like trying to control a rocket that has gone ballistic.
As with everything else in the world, there is a happy medium. Most dogfights
occur between 500 and 700 knots.This is the optimum speed for high g maneuvers
as well as maintaining a high energy rate.
When you maneuver sharply, expect to bleed off airspeed in the process. If you
don't want this to happen, increase your plane's RPMs to 100% or kick in the
afterburner to minimize the effect as much as possible.
Avoiding Negative G's
You are capable of pulling up to 3 negative g's, though you'll start to redout
if you exceed -2.5 g's. To pull negative g's, push your stick all the way
Inexperienced pilots will initiate a dive by pulling negative g's. A better
approach is to roll your plane upside down and pull positive g's toward the
ground. Using this technique, you'll use gravity to go into a faster dive.
Now that you know the basics of combat piloting, let's go on to some of the
basics of plane-to-plane combat.
AIR COMBAT MANEUVERS (ACM)
Fighter pilots have to rove in the area alotted to them in any way they like,
and when they spot an enemy they attack and shoot them down . . . anything
else is rubbish.
BARON VON RICHTHOFEN
To be successful in the fighter business the air crew must,first and foremost,
have a thorough background in fighter tactics. They must acquire an excellent
knowledge of all their equipment. Then they must approach the problem with a
spirit of aggression and with utter confidence.
LT. R.S. LORD
We agree with the Red Baron that a good pilot is more important than any plane
Although if he had lived to see the complexity of modern-day jet fighters, he
might have changed his tune about the simplicity of air combat. Being
aggressive isn't the only prerequisite to success in dogfight battle today.
Rather, the pilot must be well trained in air combat maneuvers and apply an
aggressive behavior to the fighting situation in light of his particular
For example,the plane's ability to pull 7 to 9g's in a matter of three seconds
enable it to turn in an incredibly tight arc. However, as you have learned,
that same capability will cause most pilots to blackout in the process. You
must remember that the pilot and plane are working together, and following any
series of maneuvers requires you to know exactly what your plane can do and
work in harmony with it.
The maneuvers that we will be discussing are standard ones employed by fighter
pilots throughout the world. (And once again you're not getting the pretty
pictures - I figure if you're playing this game, you'll know 'em anyway!)
This is a basic offensive maneuver, where one plane will try to do anything in
order to move in on the other's "six" for the kill.
A traditional defensive maneuver. When a plane is attacked from the rear, it
turns hard into the pursuers line of attack in an attempt to make the attacker
overshoot. Use this maneuver whenever you get a warning that you have a bandit
or SAM "on your six."
(Just pull back on the stick and keep pulling until flying level again)
The Vertical Loop is used as an evasive maneuver. In its purest form, you pull
into a sharp climb and simply come over the top and continue in the same
direction. If you complete this maneuver,you may be able to pull in behind the
other plane. Otherwise, since the loop is relatively easy to perform, you can
use it as a decoy while setting up another maneuver to execute immediately
after coming out of the loop.
High G Yo Yo
(Attacker pulls up and inverts while turning to dive down onto a Breaking
The High G Yo Yo is an offensive maneuver that is a reaction to the "Break".
Because the attacking plane is unable to hold position with the plane that is
"breaking",it starts to pull less of a hard turn and moves vertically as well.
During the climb,it rolls in the general direction of the predominant turn, so
it can make an aggressive dive at the breaking plane from what is now a more
favorable position. This maneuver is an example of using a vertical move to
enable your plane to change position in less of a horizontal plane than a more
conventional turn. If this maneuver is performed precisely, it can be very
effective because the other "breaking" plane will find it hard to detect your
position. Unfortunately, if you combine an ineffective turn with inadequate
speed in the climb, the other plane will have plenty of time to move away.
Low G Yo Yo
(Attacker pushes into a dive while turning, to pull up on the opponent)
This maneuver basically takes the opposite approach from the High Speed Yo Yo
to resolve a stalemate with a "breaking" plane. Rather than go vertical, the
attacking plane goes into somewhat of a dive while maintaining as much of the
turn as possible.The attacking plane then pulls up behind the other plane in a
more favorable position. Don't dive too low or overturn, because the other
plane will probably roll in behind you.
Flip Yo Yo
(Like above, but roll inverted to pull into the dive instead of pushing the
This is a slight variation of the Low G Yo Yo. Rather than do a pure dive and
risk pulling too many negative g's, roll your plane after initiating the dive.
You'll also be able to pick up speed faster in this move than the more
conventional Low G Yo Yo. Take care not to overshoot the other plane due to
excessive speed buildup.
This maneuver results from a successful Break by the plane under attack.As the
attacking plane overshoots its target,the other plane tries to turn the tables
and move in behind the previous attacker. Both planes roll and crisscross the
other's path as each tries to gain the advantage. Your F-4 has an inherent
disadvantage versus a MiG in this maneuver because the MiG has much better
turning characteristics, but a skilled Phantom pilot can succeed with this
maneuver versus Easy Targets (over versus Hard Targets if you are very
skilled). The Scissors can remain in a stalemate for a relatively long period
of time, until one plane takes the initiative and bails out or initiates
This move is a variation of the Scissors maneuver. Rather than simply making
rolling reversals in a relatively flat trajectory,both fighters also climb and
dive while reversing in and out of each other's flight path. This maneuver is
very unlikely to end up in a stalemate because of the numerous changes in
(During turn, roll inverted and pull into a dive to go in the opposite
direction, accelerating into the dive)
The Split S is a defensive maneuver that comes as a result of the attacking
plane moving in too close.The target plane will roll upside down and pull into
an accelerated dive before the attacking plane can react. The important thing
is to do the half-roll before you dive, so you'll pull positive g's when you
initiate the dive. You'll accelerate better and your body will withstand the
stress better (remember negative g's).
The classic confrontation, where unless either plane has been lucky enough to
strike the other on the way in, the advantage is gained by the plane that can
turn on the tighter arc to overtake the other. Because it's difficult to guess
which way your adversary is going to turn after passing you, most pilots get
used to looking over their shoulder to check on the opponent's next move, even
while they're making their own.
This maneuver is similar to the High G Yo Yo discussed earlier. The main
difference is that the attacking plane rolls in the opposite direction of the
predominant turn before making its dive to regain advantage.
(Roll inverted and pull back on the stick until the horizon is in its normal
The Dive Loop is a good maneuver to perform when you are being trailed by a
pursuer that is still a relatively long distance away. As is the case in some
of the other maneuvers, you have a more efficient turn because of the vertical
emphasis. In addition,it's more difficult for your pursuer to tell what you're
doing, since there is no movement on the horizontal plane of sight. The key is
to do a half-roll (i.e. invert) as you initiate the dive, in order to pull
positive g's, initiate better acceleration, and achieve a tighter turn radius.
When a plane under attack makes a Break, the tendency is for the attacker to
overshoot. Sometimes though, the attacker is able to maintain its advantage by
performing the Lag Pursuit, where the favorable position is held slightly
behind and below the path of the target plane. Besides being able to match the
target plane's turn rate, the attacking plane is able to prevent overshooting
by occasionally pulling g's in a slight climb to bleed off speed.
(More or less a half-loop, but you roll the plane during the climb so you can
exit at the top in any direction)
The Immelmann is a defensive maneuver where the plane being chased is trying
to change direction in the least amount of horizontal area by rolling in a
vertical climb, rather than by using the more conventional turn on a flat
plane. A hard vertical climb is followed by a roll into whatever direction you
wish to go at the top of the climb. Your Phantom is not a good jet for
performing this classic move dating from the First World War; avoid using it
except in the most exceptional circumstances.
There are a few things you can do if you are
determined to commit suicide in the skies above North
1. Attack a target twice in one mission. Once you
have been over a target, the gunners are ready
2. Run away from a missile at full afterburner.
Your exhausts make a wonderful target for a
3. Approach a target slow and low. The AAA has
lots of time to track you.
4. Try to out-turn a MiG. MiGs turn much tighter
than you do.
5. Try to outrun a SAM on the straightaway. They
go much faster in a straight line that you do.
Fuel management is an important element of this simulation. If you arrive at a
target too early (by flying too fast and using too much fuel),you will have to
leave the scene of the action earlier to get back safely. This might mean
leaving others unprotected or the operation incomplete. On the other hand, if
you have the MiGCAP role and arrive late, you may find that the aircraft you
were supposed to protect has already been shot down.
During the conflict, the fleet that was assigned the job of attacking North
Vietnam was stationed at Yankee Station. There was no precise location for
Yankee Station. Generally speaking, however, it had to be far enough off the
coast to minimize the chance of attack from land-based forces,yet close enough
to allow the attack aircraft to reach their target and return. In this
simulation we have moved Yankee Station so that it is close to the North
Vietnam coastline. This is to minimize the flight time to target.
Fuel management was an important part of mission planning, and it would weaken
the simulation if we ignored that fact. So to counter the fact that Yankee
Station is closer than it should be, we have excluded the option of refuelling
(oh yeah, sure... more like they couldn't code inflight refuelling!). At first
sight this might be considered to be a disadvantage, but consider how tedious
refuelling would be if it had to be done twice every mission. Nobody likes to
stop to fill up with gas!
If the climb requires 2,000 lb and minimum fuel for your landing, or "trap" is
3,000 lb, there is enough fuel to cruise for about one hour, approximately a
round trip of 400 nm. Yankee Station is at 107 degrees 30 minutes East
longtitude and 19 deg. 30' North latitude,so there is not enough internal fuel
to get to Yen Bai. There is certainly enough for Thanh Hoa. There is barely
enough for Hanoi.
You can start with "Unlimited Fuel" on the OPTIONS menu so that fuel
consumption doesn't bother you while you are thinking of everything else. You
can get a taste for fuel management by selecting "Half Fuel Use."The real test
is to complete a mission at "Full Fuel Use" and bring the bird back in one
The following information demonstrates that, with "Full Fuel Use" and "Normal
Engines," you do have to watch your fuel consumption, or at the least, you
won't get home. Mil stands for "military power" and refers to going at full
speed without using afterburners.
Minutes of F-4 flight on afterburners 9
Minutes of F-4 flight at mil, no afterburners 35
Minutes of A-6 flight at mil 50
Minutes of F-4 full afterburner flight from carrier to Hanoi 16
Minutes of F-4 mil flight from carrier to Hanoi 21
Minutes of A-6 mil flight from carrier to Hanoi 26
USING THE RADIO
Multiple friendly aircraft missions make messages very important.
Messages appear as screen readouts on the top line of the screen and a burst
of almost understandable speech.
The pilot receives messages from other aircraft and from his Bombardier/
Navigator. You can tell where a message comes from by its color.
Blue Chatter from other aircraft and picket ships.
White A message directed to your aircraft.
Green A message from your Bombardier/Navigator (B/N) or RIO.
An urgent message goes to the top of the queue, but it does not clear the
queue. You can review old messages by pressing  on the numeric keypad.
Messages are not sent indiscriminately. For instance the sighting of a MiG is
reported to MiGCAP leader. If MiGCAP leader is on auto, then the message
triggers a response, e.g. engage or send out another section.
Messages have four main purposes:
* To signal the position of the enemy
* To request assistance
* To warn (e.g. SAM or Bandit sighted)
* To give information about progress of the operation
Each aircraft has a callsign. At the start of a mission, look at all the
aircraft involved using the Outside View [F5] & you will see their callsigns.
Remember these callsigns or make notes,and you will have a good idea of who is
calling and how much it applies to you.
When sending warning messages, the "Clock Code" is used: straight ahead is 12
o'clock, straight behind is 6 o'clock (known as "on your six"). For example,
"Bandit at your 3 o'clock, range 2 miles" means that there is a bandit on your
right side at a distance of 2 miles. Usually, the subject of the message is
repeated twice, such as "Bandit, Bandit at your 3 o'clock, range 2 miles."
PHANTOM MULTIPLE WEAPON SELECTION PANEL
The panel is a variation of the A-6 panel and positioned on the lookdown front
view (press ]). Differences account for air-to-air missiles and guns.
1. Displays similar to the A-6:
Include the Weapons On Station and Active
Station Panel (WOSASP) which is situated at
the bottom left of the front panel. The
dive toss/direct lights are to the right,
and above them the rounds remaining in the
gun are displayed. Above the WOSASP we have
the missiles available panel. Lights
indicate the current load of air-to-air
missiles. Above that we have the
description panel and single/ripple lights
side by side. The master arm light comes
above the single/ripple lights.
There are two more instruments/switches:
2. Active Weapon Light Panel: Indicates which weapon is currently active.
Readout Active Weapon
Radar Sparrow selected
Heat Sidewinder selected
Gun Gun selected
Arm Air-to-ground weapon selected
3. AA/AG switch: Changes your weapon types between air-to-air and air-
to-ground. Pressing [Backspace] changes the active AG station. If
[Return] is pressed, then the AA/AG switch is turned and the first AA
weapon is selected. Pressing [Return] further changes the active AA
station. This station must be changed using the keyboard. The switch
is on the screen for show.
It is assumed that you have selected the weapon type you want to fire. See the
Multiple Weapon Selection Panel above.Remember that the following only applies
to the F-4 Phantom. The A-6 Intruder carries no air-to-air weapons.
Purpose The AIM-7 Sparrow is a radar-guided anti-aircraft missile for
use at long range only. If you are expected to confirm your
target before firing, you may be too close to use this weapon.
Maximum range at low (0 - 10,000 ft) altitude: 14 NM
Minimum range at low (0 - 10,000 ft) altitude: 2 NM
Maximum range at high (10,000+ ft) altitude: 7-8.6 NM 3 NM
Minimum range at high (10,000+ ft) altitude: 2 NM 1 NM
Selection Press [Return] until AIM 7 comes up in the display box, the
RADAR light comes on, and the circle appears on the radar
Aiming Steer to keep the blip on the radar screen within the circle.
When you get the captain's bars to appear around the blip,then
you have locked on. Press [Spacebar] to release the missile.
Continue to point at the bandit and the missile should lock &
guide. The bandit must be illuminated by the 65 degree cone of
the fighter's radar the entire time that the missile is flying
Generally fire in pairs to improve PK (Probability of Kill).
During a Sparrow kill you willhave your head inside the
cockpit for much of the time.
Notes The Sparrow is 12 feet long, has an 8 inch diameter and a 3
feet 4 inch fin span.It takes 4 seconds to lock on to a target
and 1.5 seconds to release. It can accelerate to more than
1,200 mph in 2.5 seconds. It takes 40 seconds to cross 40 NM.
The Sparrow had a disappointing 10% kill rate in Vietnam. It
was virtually useless below 8,000 ft.
Purpose Sidewinders are heat seeking missiles used in AirToAir combat
with a useful range of about two miles.Although hits have been
recorded at seven mile range, this is not probable since a
strong heat-source is required for tracking.
Selection Press [Return] until AIM 9 appears in the display box,the HEAT
light comes on, and the circle appears on the radar screen.
Aiming Follow the same general tactics as described for the Sparrow.
However,you are fitted with an early version of the Sidewinder
so you don't have its current all-aspect firing capability.
Maneuver the aircraft to get on the bandit's tail. You should
get a lock at a range of two miles. Press [Spacebar] to fire
the missile. Generally fire in pairs to improve PK.
Notes Like the Sparrows, the Sidewinders had a disappointing kill
ratio in Vietnam. Among their problems were an inclination to
lock onto the sun if it was in their way and a penchant for
losing targets against ground heat sources.
For this simulation, you can choose how effective your
Sidewinders are with the OPTIONS menu.
"Easy Targets" Sidewinder is an all-aspect weapon.
"Medium Targets" F-4 pilot must point at the bandit's
rear quarter to get a lock on.
"Hard Targets" Missile must continue to point at
bandit's rear to maintain lock. If the
target plane turns to face the missile
the missile loses its lock.
Guns and Rockets
Purpose The gun and rockets can be used for air-to-air and air-to-
ground attacks, though the rockets are really meant for air-to
ground attacks. Although one or two unwary MiGs were shot down
by rockets, they are nowhere near as accurate as the gun.
Rockets are further described under air-to-ground weapons.
Selection Since the gun is either an A-A or A-G weapon, you can press
either [Return] or [Backspace] until Guns comes up in the
display box, and the GUN light comes on.
Aiming Guns should only be selected when the target is in visible
range. Find your target with the threat indicator and any
reports you receive from Red Crown and your wingman.When it is
within 800 yards, you have a chance of hitting it. You have no
instruments to help you. Just fill the screen with the MiG and
press [Spacebar]. Unless you are right on top of the bandit,be
sure to aim where you think he will be, not where he is when
Notes The Phantom you are flying is equipped with a M61A1 internally
mounted rotary cannon. This gun, which fires at a rate of 100
rounds/second, was fitted to the Air Force's F-4E. Navy F-4J's
carried the M61A1 in a gun pod if they carried any gun at all.
However, we felt that if you are playing an air-to-air
simulation, you should have the joy of blasting enemy aircraft
with your gun. Certainly a lot of Navy pilots wished they had
If you want the real feel of being a Navy pilot in an F-4J,
don't use the gun. Alternately, select "Limited Arms" from the
OPTIONS menu (the default selection for players flying as Lt.
Commander, Commander and Captain) and your ammunition readout
will show that you have no ammunition for the gun. However,
this also restricts the number of missiles & other stores you
Since the Intruder is an all-weather low-level bomber, most of its deployment
was in system drops at night and/or in filthy weather. Many of its drops were
at low level (500 ft) at about 500 KTS and consisted entirely of following the
DIANE steering instructions.
Normal Strike Missions
These would usually just be a section of one or two aircraft with no covering
fighters (who couldn't operate well in those conditions, anyway). These were
not flown to Hanoi or the Haiphong docks but usually to Vinh or some isolated
If the target could actually be acquired visually, the Intruders would dive
bomb in pairs.
If an Alpha Strike is called, all operational aircraft on the carrier go to
divide the enemy's firepower. These are usually day strikes, and everything is
dropped in 60 seconds. All attackers dive bomb: the lead rolls, then everybody
follows at two-second intervals so everybody is slightly offset.
The secret of dive bombing is all in where you put the cross hairs or, in the
case of the Phantom, the gun circle.
On the Intruder, the center is 1.5 mils (milliradians) diameter. The lines are
1.5 mils wide. A mil is 1 foot in 1,000 feet. So, as a rule of thumb on a 45
degree dive at 6,000 feet, you can see a ten foot diameter circle on the
ground. Using this technique, you should be able to get a bomb close enough to
almost any target to be successful.
Stephen Coonts' Technique
Roll out at 15,000 feet.
Go into a 40 degree dive - look at gyro.
Pickle the target at 6,000 feet - 500 KTS.
The aircraft datum line (ADL) is an imaginary baseline extending from the nose
of the plane toward your direction of travel. There is no instrument to show
it. Set the mils setting to 115 mils to account for the bombsight's optical
displacement from the ADL.
Coming out of the roll, wings level, point at the target with the ADL. Make
correction for wind - no jinking from now on. Need 1g flight on release. Cross
hairs track towards the target; release when the cross hairs are on target -
except for wind correction.
There are three methods for bombing using iron bombs that haven't changed in
basic construction (although now more potent) since World War II. Only two of
the methods are available for the Phantom, direct and dive toss; DIANE is also
available for the Intruder.
The DIANE is the heart of the A-6. It is both a
navigational and a bombing device. In operation, the
radar screen of the A-6 looks like the picture to
The tripod indicates the direction the the next
waypoint. Think of it as the highway ahead of you on
a trip. If the centerline moves away from straight
ahead, turn the plane to follow the centerline. The
original manual mentions a line running across the
screen, the horizon line, but I cannot get it to
appear on the ST version of the game - however, I
will leave in the references to it just in case. The
lines at the left, right and top edges of the screen
indicate the positions of the wings and tail - as
you can see, the aircraft is flying straight and
level in this picture.
When the square at the top of the tripod moves off
the bottom of the screen, press [;] to set the DIANE
for the next waypoint.
When ATTACK appears at the bottom of the screen, you're
at the target. Press  to go to the Weapon Select
Screen. Select whatever Iron bombs you are carrying
with [Backspace], select Ripple for the bomb release
method with the  on the numeric keypad, and DIANE
for your bomb release method with  on the numeric
Dive toward the target from 10,000 - 15,000 feet or
fly level at that height. The square at the top of the
tripod fills in and follows the picture on the radar
screen. At the same time, a horizontal bar appears on
the right side of the screen (see Figure 2). When that
bar hits the bottom of the screen, hit [Spacebar].
Note that the horizon line has disappeared from the
screen. This is because the plane is diving on the
Figure 1. Approach target.
If the plane was keeping a level approach, the horizon
line might still be on the screen. However, the tripod
would be focused on the target because its function is
to show the point the plane is going to, not the
direction of the plane's travel.
You can see the horizontal bar on this picture; it
tells you when to release the bombs (see above).
This picture was taken about 5-10 seconds before bomb
release; 3 of the 5 bombs I released hit the target in
this case - and the hospital building going off the
bottom right corner of the screen was untouched. God,
I'm just so cool... Coolhand Alien, that's me!
This method is very difficult and takes a great deal of practice. The simplest
way is a straight approach toward the target.
Before starting the attack, you need to choose the release parameters: speed,
height and angle of dive.
From this selection, you can find the mil setting in the tables shown below.
For instance, for 450 KTS, and altitude of 9,000 feet and a dive angle of 60
degrees, the mil setting is 119.
In the cockpit the mil setting is achieved using [I] and [M]. [Shift] can be
used in conjunction with these keys for a faster change. As the keys are
pressed, you should see the aiming sight in the simple HUD (Head-Up Display)
move up and down. The actual mil reading is shown on the display below the
radar screen. When you are not using this method of bombing, the display reads
Set the mils as shown in the example above. Approach the target at about 9,500
feet and a speed of 400-420 KTS. If using keyboard flight controls, use the
sensitivity keys, [F3] and [F4],to change the sensitivity to maximum. When the
range figure in the upper right of the screen hits one mile, push the stick
forward quickly and get the sights on the target.
Coordination is needed here because you must hit [Spacebar] when the sight is
on the target, the altitude is 9,000 feet, the speed is 450 KTS, and the dive
angle is 60 degrees. The dive angle should be taken care of by diving at a
range of one mile.Direct attack is difficult and easy to miss by many feet, so
it is a good idea to ripple the bombs to get the best chance to hit your
Practice this many times at junior officer levels before trying it
with all the complications of higher level play.
The setup for dive toss is very similar to direct dive-bombing. Circle the
target at 10,000 - 15,000 ft and then turn and dive towards the target.
When your wings are brought level after turning towards the target, point
directly at the target. The bombsight should be directly over the target.
Press [Spacebar] and pull up. The bombs are released automatically.
MIL DETERMINATION TABLES
Direct Bomb Mil Settings - Free Fall
Speed: 450 KTS
(feet) DIVE ANGLE
|000's| 60 | 55 | 50 | 45 | 40 | 35 | 30 | 25 | 20 | 15 | 10 |
| 1 | 42 | 48 | 53 | 58 | 63 | 67 | 72 | 78 | 86 | 98 | 114 |
| 2 | 55 | 64 | 72 | 80 | 89 | 98 | 108 | 119 | 134 | 152 | 175 |
| 3 | 67 | 78 | 88 | 100 | 111 | 124 | 137 | 153 | 172 | --- | --- |
| 4 | 77 | 90 | 103 | 117 | 131 | 146 | 164 | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 5 | 87 | 102 | 117 | 133 | 149 | 167 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 6 | 96 | 112 | 129 | 147 | 165 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 7 | 104 | 122 | 141 | 160 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 8 | 112 | 131 | 151 | 172 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 9 | 119 | 140 | 161 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 10 | 125 | 147 | 170 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 11 | 132 | 155 | 179 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 12 | 138 | 162 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 13 | 143 | 168 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 14 | 149 | 175 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 15 | 154 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
Direct Bomb Mil Settings - Free Fall
Speed: 500 KTS
(feet) DIVE ANGLE
|000's| 60 | 55 | 50 | 45 | 40 | 35 | 30 | 25 | 20 | 15 | 10 |
| 1 | 39 | 45 | 49 | 53 | 57 | 61 | 65 | 69 | 76 | 85 | 100 |
| 2 | 50 | 58 | 65 | 72 | 79 | 87 | 95 | 105 | 117 | 133 | 154 |
| 3 | 60 | 70 | 79 | 89 | 99 | 109 | 121 | 135 | 151 | 171 | --- |
| 4 | 69 | 81 | 92 | 104 | 116 | 129 | 144 | 161 | --- | --- | --- |
| 5 | 78 | 91 | 104 | 118 | 132 | 148 | 164 | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 6 | 86 | 100 | 115 | 130 | 147 | 164 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 7 | 93 | 109 | 125 | 142 | 160 | 179 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 8 | 100 | 117 | 135 | 153 | 173 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 9 | 106 | 125 | 144 | 163 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 10 | 112 | 132 | 152 | 173 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 11 | 118 | 139 | 160 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 12 | 124 | 145 | 168 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 13 | 129 | 151 | 175 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 14 | 134 | 157 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 15 | 139 | 163 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
Direct Bomb Mil Settings - Retarded Fall
Speed: 450 KTS
(feet) DIVE ANGLE
|000's| 60 | 55 | 50 | 45 | 40 | 35 | 30 | 25 | 20 | 15 | 10 |
| 1 | 98 | 110 | 120 | 128 | 134 | 137 | 140 | 141 | 143 | 147 | 155 |
| 2 | 110 | 125 | 138 | 149 | 159 | 168 | 176 | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 3 | 121 | 138 | 153 | 168 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 4 | 130 | 149 | 167 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 5 | 139 | 160 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 6 | 147 | 169 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 7 | 154 | 178 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 8 | 161 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 9 | 168 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 10 | 173 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 11 | 179 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 12 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 13 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 14 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 15 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
Direct Bomb Mil Settings - Retarded Fall
Speed: 500 KTS
(feet) DIVE ANGLE
|000's| 60 | 55 | 50 | 45 | 40 | 35 | 30 | 25 | 20 | 15 | 10 |
| 1 | 96 | 107 | 116 | 123 | 128 | 131 | 132 | 132 | 131 | 133 | 139 |
| 2 | 106 | 119 | 131 | 141 | 150 | 157 | 163 | 169 | 176 | --- | --- |
| 3 | 115 | 130 | 145 | 157 | 169 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 4 | 123 | 140 | 157 | 172 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 5 | 131 | 150 | 168 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 6 | 138 | 158 | 178 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 7 | 144 | 166 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 8 | 150 | 174 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 9 | 156 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 10 | 162 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 11 | 167 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 12 | 172 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 13 | 176 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 14 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
| 15 | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- | --- |
Both aircraft carry the following weapons and use them in the same way.
Purpose The Shrike homes in on active radar, making it ideal for
attacking AAA and SAM radar targeting and control centers.
Selection Press [Backspace] until AGM 45A comes up in the display box.On
the F-4, the ARM light comes on as well.
Aiming When an empty red box appears on the threat indicator, it is a
ground threat; in addition,the threat displays should have the
MISSILE or AAA light flashing. A click can be heard every time
the number of dots on the threat indicator changes.
Get the blip on the threat indicator to 12 o'clock. The Shrike
will lock after about five seconds. When the LOCK light comes
on, use [Spacebar] to release the missile. The missile will
guide itself unless the radar station stops transmitting.
Notes Canny Vietnamese AA operator will turn off their radar if they
think a Shrike has been launched at them. (This happens at the
"High Enemy Activity" setting on the OPTIONS menu.) A Shrike
will not always destroy a site. It is good practice to follow
up, while the site is quiet,with a Walleye or a ripple of iron
bombs. You can even strafe with guns or rockets.
Purpose The Standard homes in on random radar and continues on its set
flight path when the radar turns off.
Selection Press [Backspace] until AGM 78 comes up in the display box. On
the F-4, the ARM light comes on too.
Aiming See AGM-45A above.
Notes Vietnamese AA operators how turned off their radars were very
surprised when these smart bomb continued to glide in on their
already-established path. Again, it is always a good idea to
follow up with bombs, guns or rockets.
Purpose The Hughes Walleye is a small laser-guided missile. It can be
relied on to hit its target if used correctly, but it is not
particularly big and cannot be relied on to take out a large
or hard target.
Selection Press [Backspace]until WALLEYE comes up in the display box and
(A-6 only) a camera view appears on the radar screen.
Aiming Point the aircraft in the direction of the target. In the A-6,
you should see the target on the radar screen. This is a TV
view, as the camera is located in the nose of the missile. The
F-4 does not show this.
The A-6 has two modes of operation for the Walleye: (1) Fixed
Sight and (2) Variable Sight. Toggle between them by pressing
Fixed Sight provides cross hairs on the TV screen that match
wherever the cross hairs on the HUD are placed. The only
exception is that the TV screen cross hair cannot be drawn
above the horizon. Therefore, as you climb, the cross hair is
pushed down the screen.This means that you should not shoot as
the solution is unreliable.
Point the aircraft at the target so that the cross hairs
overlay the target. Press [Spacebar]. The LOCKED light should
come on and the figures on the screen show the range and
bearing to the target. If you are not satisfied with the lock,
press [X] to release the lock. See Part III for an example of
a Walleye attack using the fixed sight method.
Variable Sight gives you HUD and TV cross hairs that do not
match. The TV cross hair is locked to a point on the ground.As
the aircraft moves, the cross hair continues to overlay the
point on the ground. The point the cross hair is locked to can
be changed with the following keys.
Move up screen [I]
Move left [J]
Move right [L]
Move down screen [M]
Using [Shift] with these keys speeds up the motion.
When the cross hairs overlay the target, switch on the master
arm with  on the numeric keypad and press [Spacebar].
The first time you press [Spacebar] "pickles" the target by
locking the radar onto it. The LOCKED light below the radar
screen lights up. Press [Spacebar] a second time to fire the
missile at its target.
In the F-4 The ARM light comes on and there is no camera picture. The F-4
essentially uses a fixed sight, your HUD gunsight.The radar is
useless for sighting. On the F-4, the same LOCK light you use
with the Sparrow also lights up with the Walleye. However, if
the F-4 does not have a target to lock on, it shoots the
missile when you first press [Spacebar], so be sure of your
Purpose The Paveway is a laser-guided bomb (LGB). It consists of a
laser sensor attached to a MK84 (see below).It is very similar
to the Walleye except that it is a bomb, not a missile. It
packs a greater punch but must be released over the target.
Selection Press [Backspace]until PAVEWAY comes up in the display box and
a camera view appears on the radar screen. On the F-4, the ARM
light comes on.
Aiming The aiming method is virtually identical to that used for the
Walleye. The A-6 has the same two methods of aiming. The
Paveway packs a much bigger punch than the Walleye, but the
Walleye is easier to aim. This is because the Paveway does not
have any propulsion & therefore can only maneuever in a small
envelope. Thus, you must dive more steeply over your target
when using the Paveway. The harder the targets you select on
the OPTIONS menu, the higher the dive angle you must attain
before releasing this weapon.
Notes While the method of shooting the Paveway is identical to the
Walleye for shooting purposes, the actual method of target
designation is different. When Paveway is selected, a friendly
plane illuminates the target with laser light. The pilot must
release the bomb so that it can pick up the reflected light
from the target. This is called "getting the bomb down the
chute" or "in the basket."
The need to get a friendly to illuminate, or "paint," the
target, is simulated in the game with the LOCKED light. If the
LOCKED light is on,the illuminating plane has done its job and
the bomb will guide. If your wingman has been shot down, you
will not get a LOCKED light. Paveways released without the
LOCKED light will act like the iron bombs described below.
LAU-3A ZUNI Rockets
Purpose Rockets are meant to put a lot of firepower into a relatively
small area at once. They can be used against personnel and
lightly armed vehicles, but have no penetration against tanks.
Selection Since rockets are considered air-to-ground weapons, press
[Backspace] until LAU 3A comes up in the display box, and on
the F-4, the ARM light comes on and the circle disappears on
the radar screen.
Aiming Because rockets have an effective range of about one mile,only
select them when you have a target in visual range. To aim,
rockets can be treated the same as a gun.Just aim the plane at
the target and press [Spacebar]. If the target is moving, lead
Notes The LAU-3A rocket pod holds 19 folding fin aircraft rockets
(FFAR). They are usually fired in burst of four or five. While
they are considered an air-to-ground weapon, there is nothing
to stop you from letting some fly in the direction of a bandit.
As an A-6 pilot you could certainly give a MiG a surprise.If a
couple of rockets hit a MiG, they could bring it down.
Purpose Iron bombs have changed little since World War II.The size has
increased and some sophistication has been added (such as the
Snakeye's retarded fall), but essentially the iron bomb still
falls from the airplane with nothing influencing its motion
but gravity and wind drag.
Selection Press [Backspace] until either MK82, MK82S, MK83, MK84 or
CBU-52 comes up in the display box. On the F-4, the ARM light
comes on. Toggle  on the numeric keypad to select the
bombing mode of DIANE, Direct or Dive Toss. Toggle  on the
numeric keypad to select either Single or Ripple release.
Aiming MK82, MK83, MK84, MK82S (Snakeyes) and CBU-52s can be released
Single or Ripple. Ripple means all weapons on a station are
released at one second intervals. The following bomb release
methods are available:
DIANE A-6 only
Direct A-6 and F-4
Dive Toss A-6 and F-4
See above, 'BOMBING TECHNIQUES', for directions on using these
Notes The MK82 is the standard all-purpose free-fall 500 lb bomb and
still has many uses - especially in rapid-release mode.
The MK83 is the standard ordnance 1,000 lb bomb. For best
results release around 7,000 ft while diving at 45 degrees.
The MK84 is a general purpose 2,000 lb bomb giving a high PK.
It should be released at over 2,000 feet to avoid being hit by
the effects of the blast.
The MK82S Snakeye is a retarded free-fall version of the MK82
all-purpose bomb for use in low-level attacks. Metal 'petals'
on the end of the bomb spring open after release to act as a
large airbrake, slowing down the bomb to let the aircraft that
dropped it clear the target area before the explosions begin.
CBU-52 Cluster Bomb Units are actually containers of several
smaller bombs that scatter and explode, making it an ideal
weapon for personnel-intensive areas such as SAM sites. They
are commonly used by Wild Weasel attacks after a Shrike or
Standard has silenced the radar installation.
Single or Ripple: Select Ripple for soft targets spread over a
large area. Choose Single when pinpoint, accurate bombing is
required. On hearing the bombs release, press [Q] to go to
missile view. You will then see the bombs fly towards the
Correct Approach: You can approach the target directly and
point the nose at the target by pushing forward on the stick
to drop the nose of the aircraft. In reality, this creates
negative g's and can cause a "redout"in which the pilot has no
control of the aircraft. This can be simulated by selecting
"Blackout/Redout On" from the OPTIONS menu.
To avoid this redout problem, a bomber pilot will normally
circle the target, go into a 135 degree roll, pull back on the
stick and then straighten up to point down at the target.
...like trying to land an elephant on a postage stamp!
- Common saying of carrier pilots
Landing on an aircraft carrier is a difficult task at best. It requires
alertness and concentration - just the thing at the end of a trying mission.
Some say it doesn't matter where the bombs go,but you'd better get the landing
right. Everybody is watching and you get marked.
In this simulation, you get real marks for each manual landing. (There is no
mark for taking the easy way out and using "End Mission" from the FILE menu or
the autopilot to land the plane.) If you land the plane manually, you get one
of three marks displayed in brackets under the title "Duty Pilot Landings" at
the Debriefing screen:
Green OK Speed and orientation good on touchdown
Black No comment Speed and orientation not dangerous
Red Dangerous Hook or gear up on touchdown or bad landing
If you are having a bad day or if your aircraft is damaged, call for the net
([Shift] [H] for "Help"). This is a barrier erected over the wires to stop an
aircraft which cannot hook an arrestor wire.
If you go for the net, you do not get a landing mark.
INSTRUMENTATION TO HELP WITH LANDING
Press [F7] (the ACLS key) to activate the "meatball." This is a prominent
column on the port (left) side of the carrier with two fixed horizontal green
lights and one moveable vertical yellow light. If the yellow light is in line
with the green lights, then you are on the glide slope and you are descending
at the required pitch of 3 degrees. If the yellow light is above the green
ones, then you are above the glide slope. If the yellow light is below the
green ones, then you are below the glide slope.
The AOA Indexer is a column on the left of the aircraft optical
sight. It is activated by pressing [F7]. There are three
lights: a downward arrow at the top, a circle in the middle,
and an upward arrow at the bottom. The circle is illuminated if
your approach speed is correct. Correct approach speed for the
F-4 is 156 KTS, for the A-6 its 118 KTS.
If the top light is illuminated, then you are going too slow.
If both the top and center lights are on, then your approach
speed is a little too slow. This means that your angle of
attack (closely related to speed) is out by half a unit.
The bottom light indicates that your speed is too high.
If you have pressed [F7] and no light is on, you are coming in
at an uncorrectable speed. Go around and try again.
Indexing AOA to Pitch
Nose too high, speed too low. If you are using an
outside view to watch
your plane land,
you can tell if you are
too fast or too slow by
the approach pitch of
the plane. If the nose
Perfect approach. is too high, you are
not going fast enough
to keep your tail up.
To compensate, speed
up. If the nose is too
low, you are going too
fast to drop your hook
Nose too low, speed too high. properly. Slow down.
>> Press [F7] to activate the AOA Indexer and ACLS (see below).
Use [F5] or [F6] to go to an outside view and toggle [Shift] [;] until the
waypoint entry says "Carrier." You will see the distance and bearing to the
carrier from your current heading (this is known as the offset). Change your
heading to match the bearing.
Turn off the autopilot, go to an outside screen and use [;] to toggle the
waypoints to "Land." Then turn the autopilot on again. This only works for the
A-6; an F-4 in autopilot continues to chase bandits instead of going home.
Automatic Carrier Landing System (ACLS) Indicator
The ACLS Indicator assists you when making an instrument
landing (called "following the needle"). The ACLS has two
principal components: the Glide Slope Deviation (GSD) scale
and the Localizer Deviation (LD) scale.
The GSD scale indicates the extent to which you are
above or below the "landing beam" (an imaginary beam
----+---- projected from the flight deck). The higher you are
above the beam, the lower the GSD scale. The scale is
centered when the landing approach is correct.
| The LD scale indicates the extent to which you are to
| the left or right of the deck. If you are left of the
+ flight deck, the LD scale will be to the right of
| center, and vice versa. The scale is centered when the
| landing approach is correct.
You need to control two additional parameters for a
perfect landing: angle of attack and heading (see
>> Select CAG Briefing. This brings up the target selection screen.
>> Press [L] and use [Backspace] or [Delete] to erase the operation name
shown. Type in TESTLAND at the dialog box. This is a shortened mission
which takes you away from the carrier and then brings you back to do
the required circuit before automatically landing. Ignore the "Error:
No Target" message. You are here for practice, not a score.
First, play this mission through on automatic to see the circuit.
>> Put the aircraft on accelerated mode until is heading back towards the
carrier. You should see the carrier at about 8 miles.
The aircraft will fly over the carrier,drop the landing gear and break left. A
course of 270 degrees is then achieved, and the carrier should be seen on the
left. When the starboard escort frigate is just still visible in the left side
view, the flaps are lowered and the aircraft turns toward the carrier.When the
aircraft has lined up the approach, the hook is lowered. During the final
approach on automatic, note the ACLS, the meatball, the heading on the radar
screen, etc. Stay in the outside view [F5] for the landing and you should see
the arrestor wire engage.
Now try a manual landing. You can turn to manual at any part of a circuit by
pressing [A] to disengage the autopilot. Initially, it is a good idea to just
practice the final approach.
>> You will need a combination of stick and RPM adjustments to:
Keep the meatball's lights in line.
Keep the ACLS lights centered into a perfect cross.
Keep the speed correct(118 KTS for the A-6 and 154 KTS for the F-4).
Keep the pitch correct.
>> If the meatball lights are in line and your pitch is 3 deg. (as shown
on the AOA Indexer or the radar screen), then you are in good shape.
When you drop your landing gear, your viewpoint out of the front of the
cockpit looks lower. This gives you a viewpoint more in common with what a
carrier pilot is actually looking at when making a carrier landing.
Some Useful Data
In the A-6 the landing speed is 118 KTS. The
carrier's combined speed and windspeed across
the deck is 40 KTS (on a good day) so the
relative speed is 78 KTS.
To achieve 118 KTS, power down to 80% RPM
and use airbrakes. When the desired speed is
obtained, increase the RPM back to 88%. On
the RPM dial,80% is at the 6 o'clock position.
The VSI (Vertical Speed Indicator) should be
650 ft/min. From this data we can produce the
Miles Out Desired Height
1 575 feet
2 1075 feet
3 1575 feet
NAVAL AIR WAR
The Gulf of Tonkin
The war in Vietnam on August 2, 1964 when F-8E Crusaders from the USS
Ticonderoga attacked North Vietnamese P-4 patrol boats off Hon Me Island. The
North Vietnamese PT boats had attacked the U.S. destroyer Maddox (DD-731),
possibly confusing the destroyer with one of the South Vietnamese patrol boats
which had earlier shelled a radar station on Hon Me Island and a radio
transmitter on Hon Ngu Island. After the Maddox fired three warning shots, the
Vietnamese craft launched torpedoes.All shots missed. After taking machine gun
fire, the Maddox radioed for air support. Four F-8E Crusaders intercepted the
patrol boats and sank one of the P-4 boats with gunfire and Zuni rockets.
On the night of August 4, 1964, 73 servicemen were either killed or injured
when the Brink Hotel Bachelor Officer's Quarter in Saigon was bombed. The
President authorized Operation Flaming Dart One, which targeted enemy barracks
at Dong Hoi and Vit Thu Lu. The Communists responded by bombing the Bachelor
Enlisted Quarters at Qhi Nhon on February 10, 1965, which killed or wounded 44
U.S. personnel. Again, the U.S. retaliated the next day with Flaming Dart Two
which attacked the Chanh barracks.
Action brought reaction. Targets and mission profiles were approved in
Washington before each mission. Targets were assigned by the Joint Chiefs of
Staff (JCS) with approval from the President and Secretary of Defense. On
February 13, 1965 President Johnson authorized operation Rolling Thunder.
Rolling Thunder tasked both the Navy and Air Force with bombing missions north
of the DMZ (Demilitarized Zone) to the outskirts of Hanoi. The goal of Rolling
Thunder was to force North Vietnam to the peace table by demonstrating U.S.
firepower and threatening their capital. The object was to bomb military
targets and to avoid civilian or foreign casualties. U.S. Admiral Grant Sharp
said, "It [Rolling Thunder] does not seek to inflict maximum damage on the
enemy. Instead, it is a precise application of military pressure for the
specific purpose of halting aggression in South Vietnam."
Rules of Engagement
Rules of Engagement were established to control the conflict.Only targets that
had been pre-approved could be bombed. Targets would be submitted to the
Pentagon, and they would recommend the targets to the JCS and the Secretary of
Defense. Only the President could officially add targets to the list. The
number of sorties and mission profiles, including the type of ordnance, was
decided in Washington. This elaborate approval process was designed to control
and limit the conflict by placing control in Washington rather than with the
local commanders. This policy failed.
The Rules of Engagement frustrated the naval aviators. Several rules were
established. Aircraft were not allowed to bomb secondary strike targets. All
unexpended ordnance had to be jettisoned at sea rather than on targets.
Surface-to-air missile sites could not be attack while under construction for
fear of hurting Soviet advisors. Enemy aircraft could not be bombed while on
the ground unless they were taking off. No aircraft could be attacked unless
positive visual identification was made, yet the Navy's principal fighter, the
F-4 Phantom, was designed as a beyond-visual-range interceptor and had no
internal gun. Harbors could not be mined;ships carrying war supplies could not
be bombed. Aircrews also could not attack military targets such as AAA (Anti-
Aircraft Artillery) batteries on farms, rice paddies or dikes; military supply
trucks parked on civilian sites; or SAM batteries within 10 miles of Hanoi. If
a mission was cancelled due to weather or a change in operations, the entire
authorization process had to be repeated.
To make matters worse, ship commanders during the early phases of the war
competed with each other to see which ship could launch the most sorties
(missions). If one ship flew 125 sorties in one day, another ship tried to
launch 130 sorties the next day. So instead of loading up planes with full
loads to bomb several targets in one mission, several flights of planes would
be launched with only one or two bombs in order to keep up the number of
required sorties. Many pilots and Radar Intercept Officers (RIOs) lost their
lives as others played the numbers game. As one pilot put it, "It's crazy to
let politicians run a war... It's like having the military run a country."
The Threat Grows
By the spring of 1965, the air war really began to heat up. Operation Rolling
Thunder was under way, and the United States was dropping an average of 800
tons of ordnance a day. Instead of buckling under, the North Vietnamese raised
the ante by adding two new air defense weapons to its already effective AAA,
the MiG and the SAM (surface-to-air missile). On April 4, 1965 the first
conclusive air combat took place over Vietnam when two Air Force F-105s were
shot down by MiG-17s. Then on April 5, a USS Coral Sea RF-8A reconnaissance
plane positively identified the construction of the first surface-to-air
missile site. The photos revealed the construction of a Soviet built SA-2
Guideline missile site 15 miles southeast of Hanoi. The SA-2 was a two stage
anti-aircraft missile capable of intercepting and destroying aircraft at
altitudes of over 60,000 feet.
The commander of Task Force 77, Rear Admiral Edward Outlaw, along with the
commander of the 7th AirForce in Saigon wanted to strike the SAM site quickly.
Because of the Rules of Engagement, however, he was not allowed to without
first going through the chain of command.A joint Air Force and Navy plan would
destroy all of the sites under construction was submitted, but permission was
never given by the Joint Chiefs of Staff. On July 24, 1965 an Air Force F-4C
was shot down by a SA-2 while flying target combat air patrol during an attack
on the Lang Chi munitions factory. The SAMs were now operational.
The President authorized a single retaliatory strike on July 27th against two
specific SAM sites (sites 6 and 7) near Hanoi. One site was destroyed, but the
cost was four Air Force F-105s and one RF-101C. The Navy lost its first plane,
an A-4E, to a SAM on the night of August 11th. The Navy was authorized to
retaliate on August 13, 1965. Seventy-six low-level anti-SAM missions ("Iron
Hand") were launched on that Black Friday. Five planes were shot down by enemy
guns, two pilots were killed, and seven planes were damaged. No SAM sites were
discovered or destroyed.
Enter the Intruder
The Grumman A-6A Intruder is a two-seat subsonic attack aircraft capable of
delivering 16,800 pounds of ordnance at ranges of over 1,500 miles in any kind
of weather, day or night. Until Vietnam, the A-6 with its multimillion dollar
advanced radar and computer systems was untested.Many experts had doubts as to
the ability of the A-6 to deliver its payload.
In July 1965 the VA-75 Attack Squadron aboard the USS Independence, better
known as the Sunday Punchers, was the first Air Wing to receive the Intruder.
The first mission of the Sunday Punchers was to take the Intruder to targets
south of Hanoi. This was the first Vietnam mission flown entirely by radar.
Over the next several weeks, the A-6A proved its ability to hit its target in
any kind of weather or time of day. The introduction of the A-6 gave the Navy
its first attack aircraft that could overcome the terrible monsoons the
Vietnamese weather delivered in the Tonkin Gulf.
The A-6 was so effective that Radio Hanoi claimed that American B-52 heavy
bombers had attacked the Uong Bi power plants under the cover of night with 26
bombers. In reality the raid was carried out by only two Intruders. The
Intruder was used not only as a bomber but also served as a SAM suppressor in
the "Iron Hand" missions.
The A-6 was an effective attack aircraft, but it did come at a cost. Fifty-one
Intruders were shot down in Vietnam, and the plane suffered one of the worst
combat loss rates in the Navy, trailing only the propeller driven A-1 and the
single-seat light attack A-4 Skyhawk in loss to flight ratio. The main threats
to the A-6 were small arms fire and anti-aircraft automatic weapons.
As the war continued, the United States began to develop new tactics to deal
with the growing number of North Vietnamese threats.To counter the growing SAM
threat,the Navy developed an operation called "Iron Hand" to suppress the SA-2
surface-to-air missiles.These anti-SAM sorties were first flown from July 1965
to August 1965. Initially, these missions proved very costly to the U.S..
Several Iron Hand planes were shot down by the SAMs and even more were
destroyed by AAA fire. It wasn't until October 17, 1965 that the Navy bagged
its first confirmed destruction of a SAM site near Kep Air Base.
It took time for the Navy to develop adequate Iron Hand tactics. At first,
planes attempted to come in below 3,000 feet to avoid the high flying SAMs.The
problem was that the flight became extremely vulnerable to small arms fire and
AAA.Another problem with coming in low was that the planes did not have enough
energy (speed) when they had to pop-up for their attack runs. This made the
attacking plane a sitting duck for AAA and small arms fire as the plane seemed
to hang in mid-air as it popped up for its attack.
In March 1966, the Iron Hand operations became truly effective. With the
introduction of the AGM-45 Shrike anti-radiation missile, the Navy had its
first real anti-SAM weapon. The Shrike followed the radar beam being emitted
from a SAM site. The installation of radar warning equipment (AN/APR-25 RHAW)
in the aircraft along with jammers (AN/ALQ-81 ECM) and chaff dispensers
(AN/ALE-29A) allowed the American planes to dive in at medium altitudes. An
even more effective anti-SAM missile,the Standard, was introduced in May 1968;
it was bigger, had a longer range, and was less susceptible to being fooled.
The Iron Hand missions greatly reduced the effectiveness of the SAMs.
The air war in Vietnam was mainly an air-to-ground affair. MiGCAP (MiG Combat
Air Patrol) was an operation mainly flown by F-4 Phantom IIs from the larger
Forrestal and later class carriers and by F-8 Crusaders off of the smaller
Essex and Midway class carriers.(The Midway and Coral Sea had F-4 Squadrons as
well). For many, MiGCAP was a boring mission since most of the action was air-
to-ground. But MiGCAP was needed to defend the attack aircraft against the
MiG-17, MiG-19 and MiG-21. When the MiGs were up, things got hot.
The F-4 Phantom II was a Mach 2.5 multi-purpose interceptor and is regarded by
many as the best all-round aircraft flown in Vietnam (though Navy F-8 drivers
might try to argue this with you). The Navy versions, unlike the Air Force F-
4E, did not have an internal gun. All of the Navy's MiG kills in the F-4 were
done exclusively with missiles. The F-4 mainly carried two types of air-to-air
missiles:the medium range radar-guided AIM-7 Sparrow and the short range AIM-9
The AIM-7 Sparrow was designed to intercept and destroy aircraft at distances
beyond visual range (up to 14 miles).The Radar Intercept Officer (RIO), or GIB
(Guy In Back), would lock onto targets with his radar and launch an AIM-7 at
his prey. The F-4 must keep its radar on the target in order to guide the
missile until the point of contact. Because the Rules of Engagement required
aircraft to be positively identified (which usually meant visually within two
miles), the effectiveness of the AIM-7 was greatly reduced.The AIM-7 accounted
for only ten of the Navy Phantom's 41 kills. Only one Sparrow out of every
twelve launched found its target.
The AIM-9 Sidewinder accounted for the other 31 MiG kills by Phantom drivers.
The AIM-9 is a heat-seeking missile with approximately a two mile range. A
pilot had to approach his targets rear end in order for the missile to lock on
the heat signature of the MiG's engines. Once launched, the Sidewinder would
guide itself towards the target. The Sidewinder was twice as effective as the
AIM-7 with a kill every 5.5 launches.
The Navy orchestrated large attack group consisting of bombers (A-6 Intruders,
A-4 Skyhawks or A-7 Corsair IIs), Combat Air Patrol fighters (F-8 Crusaders or
F-4 Phantoms), Flak Suppressors (F-8s or F-4s) and Iron Hands (A-6s, A-4s or
F-8s). These flights, which could contain as many as 24 aircraft, became known
as Alpha Strike missions. It was this strike package which became the standard
formation for hitting targets in North Vietnam.
From 1965 to 1968, the F-4 Phantom's kill ratio was a lousy 2.6 to 1. The F-4
crews had bagged 13 MiGs and lost five F-4s. The naval aviator had lost his
ability to dogfight,especially against the smaller and more maneuverable MiGs.
By 1968, things were getting worse with the kill ratio falling below 1 to 1.
In 1968 the Naval Air System Command ordered a study to find out why our (?)
aviators were being flown out of the skies. The now famous "Ault Report"
pointed out three reasons why the kill ratio had suffered. First, the air-to-
air missiles did not work as advertised. Second, the Rules of Engagement (ROE)
neutralized any advantages our aircraft had and gave limitless advantages to
the enemy. Third and most important,our (?!) pilots were poorly trained in air
combat maneuvering (ACM) against dissimilar aircraft and tactics.
In 1969 a class for Navy F-4 pilots began to correct these deficiencies. Three
years later an independent command, the Navy Fighter Weapons School (better
known as TOP GUN) was established to train crews in the art of ACM.
When the air war heated up again in 1972, TOP GUN F-4 pilots enjoyed a 24 to 2
kill ratio. In addition, no additional Navy attack or reconnaissance aircraft
were lost to enemy MiGs. TOP GUN produced the Navy's only aces, Lt. Randy
Cunningham and Lt. (j.g.) Willie Driscoll. On May 10, 1972, Cunningham and
Driscoll in their F4 shot down three MiGs in one mission including the dreaded
enemy ace Col. Toon flying a MiG-17. Col. Toon was credited with downing 13
American jets before meeting Cunningham and Driscoll. The dogfight that took
place between these two planes is now legendary. TOP GUN had paid off.
Rolling Thunder V
The war continued to intensify through 1967 with Operation Rolling Thunder V
which began on February 14, 1967. President Johnson authorized attacks against
a new list of targets which included mining the Song Ca estuaries and Song
Giang rivers in order to close them to barge traffic. He also ordered the
bombing of the ports of Cam Pha, Hong Gai and Haiphong. In addition to this,
bridges and rail networks were also destroyed,cutting off the steady supply of
weapons and fuel to the North Vietnamese. Eventually, Haiphong ran out of
ammunition. In 1967 the Navy alone destroyed 30 SAM sites, 187 flak batteries
and dropped 955 bridges. In addition, thousands of trains, trucks and
watercraft were destroyed.The Navy scored 14 MiG kills and had no less than 11
aircraft carriers on line.
Early 1968 saw the North Vietnamese striking back with two large offensives:
the Tet offensive and the battle for Khe Sanh. Both efforts were repulsed. On
November 1st, after feeling the pressure of the anti-war movement, President
Johnson ordered the unilateral halting of bombing north of the 20th parallel
except "in the areas where the continuing enemy buildup directly threatens
allied forward positions and where the movement of their troops and supplies
are clearly related to that threat." President Johnson had hoped that by
halting the bombing a peace dialogue between the Communists, the South
Vietnamese and the United States could begin. He hoped that the cessation of
hostile activities would demonstrate the United State's good faith.In reality,
it eased the pressure on Hanoi and Haiphong and allowed the North Vietnamese
to rearm. The Communists were committed to their cause.
After winning the 1968 presidential election,President Nixon began the gradual
withdrawal of troops from Vietnam. On June 8, 1969, the U.S. withdrew 5,000
troops from South Vietnam. Peace talks began in Paris in August 1969.
Bombing began in both Laos & Cambodia in an attempt to stop the steady supply
of arms to the Viet Cong into South Vietnam. The main targets were trucks and
transportation routes along the infamous Ho Chi Minh Trail. This bombing
continued through 1970 with very little success because the supplies needed to
be cut off at their source, the harbors. The anti-truck campaign did not halt
the transportation of arms since the VietCong found new ways of moving weapons
under the cover of night and jungle to avoid the U.S. air raids.
On March 30, 1972 North Vietnam launched a massive all-out spring offensive
across the Demilitarized Zone into South Vietnam. Cease-fire talks in Paris
between the President's National Security Advisor, Henry Kissinger, and the
North Vietnamese representative, Le Duc Tho, broke off. Tho felt he had the
advantage because of the protests in the United States over the war and, with
the new spring offensive, he thought that victory over the south was imminent.
In response, on April 7, 1972, President Nixon authorized the Navy, for the
first time during the Vietnam war, to mine Haiphong and other North Vietnamese
ports. In addition, and all-out effort was made to bomb all of the North's
supply lines. B-52s began their first raids over Hanoi and Haiphong on April
17th. The Navy also launched strikes into Hanoi and Haiphong. All traffic
stopped, with the exception of that across Chinese borders. Between May and
September,the Navy launched an average of 4,000 day and night sorties a month.
In that same period of time, the North launched nearly 2,000 SAMs and fired
thousands of rounds of AAA, resulting in the destruction of 28 U.S. aircraft.
By the end of the campaign, the North ran out of ammunition. Not a single AAA
shell nor SAM missile was fired at U.S. aircraft. On October 23, 1972 the
Communists asked for a cease-fire.
On October 24th,the United States halted bombing above the 20th Parallel as a
peace gesture (although bombing of supply lines south of the 20th Parallel
continued at an unprecedented rate). Linebacker I had ended.
Atfer the bombing stopped, the Communists refused to deal in earnest and used
the halt to resupply and rebuild. To make matters worse, the South, after
accusing the U.S. of cutting a separate deal with the North, sabotaged the
peace discussions by making 69 major changes in the initial peace proposal.
Operation Linebacker II commenced on December 18, 1972 when President Nixon
resumed the bombing of Hanoi and mining of Haiphong. Nixon was determined to
force the North back to the bargaining tables. For the next eleven days, with
the exception of Christmas and New Year's Day, aircraft from the America,
Enterprise, Midway, Oriskany, Ranger and Saratoga attacked a variety of
targets: petroleum, oil and lubricant (POL) storage areas, airfields, SAM and
AAA sites, rail, road, shipyards, port facilities, and enemy troop
emplacements. All told, the Navy flew 505 day and night sorties against the
North in the 11 days. On January 15, 1973 combat operations in the North were
On January 27,1973 representatives from the U.S., South Vietnam, North Vietnam
and Viet Cong signed the "Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring the Peace
in Vietnam." All offensive operations ceased, the mines were removed from
Haiphong harbor (Operation Endsweep), and preparations for the return of 144
downed U.S. pilots (Operation Homecoming) were made. Thirty-five aviators had
died in captivity.
Four months after Congress voted in June 1973 to end all U.S.combat activities
in or over Southeast Asia, the North Vietnamese Central Committee adopted a
resolution to conduct a revolutionary war to destroy the enemy & liberate the
South.Because of the War Powers Resolution Act which made it illegal to commit
U.S. forces for more than 60 days without congressional approval, the U.S. did
On April 30, 1975 Saigon, along with all of South Vietnam, fell to the North.
U.S. naval combat action officially terminated on August 15th, 1973 when
Congress mandated the end of all combat involvement in Southeast Asia. The ten
years and five days after the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution cost the Navy the live
of 377 naval aviators, 179 prisoners of war and 64 missing in action. Another
205 officers and men had also been lost during major fires aboard three
carriers. Operational accidents claimed 316 planes,while 538 aircraft had been
lost in combat. Anti-aircraft artillery accounted for 37% of the Navy's
aircraft losses, 18% to small arms fire (machine guns and rifles), and 15% to
surface-to-air missiles (SAMs). Only 2% of the Navy's losses were to MiG
The Navy used 21 carriers during the Vietnam war and spent a total of 9,178
days in the Gulf of Tonkin. Between the Navy,Marines and Air Force, the United
States dropped a total of 7.4 million tons of bombs in Southeast Asia. Between
1964 and 1973, the Navy flew a total of 785,000 fixed-wing combat sorties. The
Navy and Marines shot down a total of 61 enemy aircraft of which 59 were MiGs
(39 MiG-17s, 2 MiG-19s and 18 MiG-21s).The Navy enjoyed a 56 to 10 fighter vs.
fighter score against the North Vietnamese.
A WORD ABOUT THE VIETNAM WAR
The Vietnam War tore America apart. It was an era that pitted young against
old, liberal against conservative, poor against rich, and black against white.
Over 58,000 Americans died. Another 153,000 were wounded. The Vietnamese lost
even more. Today, there are many opinions and viewpoints about the U.S.
involvement in Southeast Asia. Flight of the Intruder is intended to give you
the Naval Aviator's point of view.
The Navy lost 377 pilots in Vietnam.For many aviators, the most upsetting part
of the war was not the loss of life but the loss of life without purpose. Many
pilots were killed attempting to bomb meaningless targets. The Vietnam War
became a war of statistics. Sortie, mission, and target counts became more
important than the lives of the people who put their lives on the line every
This game is not intended to glorify the war but is designed to give you a
better understanding of the sacrifices we (?) asked our (?) pilots to make. We
at Spectrum Holobyte are attempting to give you a very realistic simulation of
the era. We want you to appreciate the effects of the rules which we (??) made
our (this is too much, since when were they 'our' people, I'm British!)
aviators operate under and to appreciate the effectiveness of the North
When you play the game,play it as if you were in a real A-6 or F-4 in Vietnam.
When you are hit by a missile or shot out of the sky in the game, understand
that if you were an aviator in Vietnam, you would have died. The men who flew
in Vietnam did not have the ability to reset the game or turn off the computer
They did not have the ability to simply turn off the Rules of Engagement.
War, especially the Vietnam War, is not about machines and technology. It's
about people and politics. It's about lives and deaths. War is not a game. It
should never be reduced again to a collection of statistics. We should never
take decision of war lightly and never ask our youth to sacrifice their lives
without cause. Perhaps in the future we can live in a world in which we are
dedicated to building rather than destroying.
This game is dedicated to all those people who sacrificed their lives and who
lost their dreams and loved ones in Vietnam.
Gilman G. Louie
F1 Zoom In
F2 Zoom Out
F3 Sensitivity Increase
F4 Sensitivity Decrease
F5 Outside View
F6 Tracking View
F8 Satellite View
F9 Carrier View
1 Horizontal View Rotate
2 Vertical View Rotate
3 L Back 45 deg. View
4 Left View
5 L Front 45 deg. View
6 Front View
7 R Front 45 deg. View
8 Right View
9 R Back 45 deg. View
Alt 1 Reverse Horizontal View Rotate
Alt 2 Reverse Vertical View Rotate
Shift 1 Section 1
Shift 2 Section 2
Shift 3 Section 3
Shift 4 Section 4
Shift 9 Leader/Wingman Toggle
Shift 0 View Unfriendly
- Decrease Throttle
+ Increase Throttle
Backspace Air-to-Ground Weapons Select
Q Missile View
T Walleye/Paveway Sight Toggle
I Walleye Target Setting Up / Increase Mil Setting
O Video Reset
[ Look Up
] Look Down
Return Air-to-Air Weapons Select
Delete Take Photo
Shift Tab Accelerator will not shut off if bogey near
Shift I Walleye Target Setting Up / Increase Mil Setting by 10
Control E Eject
A Autopilot/Manual Weapons
S Sound Mode Select
G Landing Gear
H Arrestor Hook
J Walleye Target Setting Left
L Walleye Target Setting Right
; Increase Waypoint
' Decrease Waypoint
Shift A Autopilot/Automatic Weapons
Shift H Emergency Net Toggle
Shift ; Waypoint Information Toggle
Control K Jettison All Stores
Control L Catapult Launch
X Clear A-G lock
C COMED: Map/Radar Toggle
V Video Recorder Toggle
B Air Brakes
M Walleye Target Setting Down / Decrease Mil Setting
< Decrease Afterburner
> Increase Afterburner
/ Military Power
Shift M Decrease Mil Setting by 10
Control C Jettison Centerline Stores
Help Master Arm
Insert Bomb Mode
Cursor Up Nose Down
Clr/Home Message Review
Cursor Left Bank Left
Cursor Down Nose Up
Cursor Right Bank Right
/ Military Power
* Take Photo
7 Master Arm
8 Nose Down
- Decrease Throttle
4 Bank Left
6 Bank Right
+ Increase Throttle
1 Bomb Mode
2 Nose Up
3 Message Review
Enter Air-to-Air Weapons Select
Control 4 Left Rudder
Control 6 Right Rudder
Shift numbers Cockpit Views
KEY COMMAND DESCRIPTIONS
Press the following keys to change your view out of the cockpit:
View Keyboard Numeric Keypad
Left back 45 deg.  [Shift] 
Left  [Shift] 
Left front 45 deg.  [Shift] 
Front  [Shift] 
Right front 45 deg.  [Shift] 
Right  [Shift] 
Right back 45 deg.  [Shift] 
Out of cockpit views and special commands
Most of the following keys provide you with views of the aircraft from outside
the cockpit. Use these to see your aircraft's position relative to the
surrounding geography and to other aircraft.
Outside View -- F5 F6 -- Tracking View
ACLS -- F7 F8 -- Satellite
Carrier -- F9 F10 - Menu
Outside View View of the piloted aircraft from a tracking aircraft.The view
rotation keys ( and  on the keyboard)and zoom keys ([F1]
and [F2]) are available.
Tracking View View of the piloted aircraft from the rear. The view rotation
and zoom keys are available.
ACLS Automatic Carrier Landing System. This special command toggle
turns on the ACLS instruments (see Part IX: Carrier Landings).
Satellite Looking down (from satellite) at the piloted aircraft.
Carrier View of the home carrier. View rotation keys are available.
Menu This special command brings up the menus described earlier and
pauses the game until you are done with the menus.
Bank left - 4 6 - Bank right
| (Numeric Keypad)
See Part II: Menus and Controls for more information on Flying with Stick.
Throttle Press [+] to increase engine throttle, which is normally
reflected by an increase in RPM and airspeed. Press [-] to
decrease throttle and RPM. You can use the [+] and [-] keys on
the numeric keypad as well.
Air-to-air Press [Return] or [Enter] once to activate the air-to-air
weapons select mode (if not already present). Press [Return]
again to cycle through the different missile and gun formats.
This is not available on the Intruder. Please note that this
key does not actually toggle between air-to-air weapons on the
F-4; instead, it toggles between weapon stations. This is why
you may have to hit this key more than once to go from another
weapon to the Sparrow AIM 7. If the weapon selection starts on
Heat, for instance, it cycles past the two stations that could
carry Sidewinders, then checks the guns, and then looks to the
Sparrows. The Sparrow does not count as a normal store on the
plane because it has its own dedicated stations;other ordnance
cannot be loaded on these stations.
Air-to-ground Press [Backspace] once to activate the air-to-ground weapons
select mode (if not already present). Press [Backspace] again
to cycle through the different missile, bomb and gun formats.
Trigger Press the [Spacebar] to fire all weapons or release bombs.
Military Power The [/] key kicks your plane up to military power (100% RPM).
It also turns off the afterburner on the F-4 Phantom.
Afterburner Four stages of afterburner power are available on the F-4, for
times when you need to "put the pedal to the metal." Press [>]
to increase the afterburner stage or [<] to decrease it. The
afterburner is not available on the A-6 Intruder.
Flares Press  on the numeric keypad to release flares when heat-
seeking missiles are being fired at you by enemy SAM sites or
Chaff Press [.] on the numeric keypad to dispense chaff and avert
radar-guided missiles fired at you by enemy SAM sites or MiGs.
Pause Press [P] to pause the simulation. Press it again to continue.
All view keys in & outside the cockpit are available when the
game is paused.
Review Press  on the numeric keypad to toggle through the messages
received by your aircraft.
Air brakes Press [B] to activate the air brakes and slow your aircraft
down while it's in the air. Press [B] a second time to release
the air brakes.
Hook Press [H] to activate the hook on landing. Without this hook
down, your plane cannot catch the arrestor wire.
Landing gear Press [G] to raise and lower the landing gear.
Video Recorder Toggle [V] to turn the video recorder on and off. You can take
a "videotape" of whatever is happening when you press the key
until you press it again. When using this feature, the VIDEO
light in the cockpit is on until you run out of tape or turn
the video recorder off.
Flaps Press [F] to activate wing flaps for speed control. Press [F]
a second time to deactivate wing flaps. Flaps give extra lift
and so are used in landing to allow a slower approach speed.
Without flaps,the aircraft would be dangerously close to stall
speed when approaching a landing.
COMED COMED is the Combined Map/Electronic Display. Press [C] to
toggle between a map detailing the mission route and the
default radar mode.
Radar Press [R] to turn your radar display off. Press [R] again to
turn the radar display back on.
Master arm Press  on the numeric keypad to arm each missile and weapon
for firing. Any time you go to autopilot, you must press 
again to arm weapons when you take control again. You can also
use [Help] instead of .
Bomb mode Press  on the numeric keypad to toggle between the DIANE,
Direct and Dive Toss bomb dropping modes.
ECM Press [E] to turn on the ECM (Electronic Countermeasures) pod
(if you're carrying one) as a defense against radar-guided
SAMs. Press [E] a second time to turn it off.
Autopilot Press [A] to toggle the autopilot on and off. If you turn on
the autopilot during a dogfight,it will track the MiGs for you
automatically but not shoot. Real autopilots do not do this,
but this is a convenience for the player who wants to
participate in a dogfight or bombing run without flying the
plane. If there are no MiGs present, the autopilot will fly
your aircraft to the target for the current mission.This means
Track enemy aircraft without shooting at them.
However, the autopilot will not release weapons normally. You
must press [Shift] [A] to instruct the autopilot to actually
fight the plane. Under this option, you are essentially a
bystander. The plane automatically performs actions such as
dropping bombs at the waypoints and attacking MiGs and radar
sites if assigned to do so (Part V:You As CAG describes how to
set orders for aircraft sections).
Clear A-G lock If you lock on to the wrong target during an air-to-ground
mission, press [X] to clear the lock and try again.
Cat launch Press [Control] [L] to launch your plane from the carrier's
Jettison Press [Control] [C] to jettison the centerline stores if you
centerline need to get rid of excess weight to give you added
stores maneuverability or acceleration. See also Jettison all stores
Eject When all else fails, press [Control] [E] to eject from your
aircraft. However, ejecting is not necessarily the safest or
the smartest option in a given situation. Invoke it only as a
last resort. If you eject for no reason, your pilot is
automatically court-martialled. Ejecting over enemy terrain
gets you captured. Also, you can die during ejection.
Jettison Press [Control] [K] to jettison everything except your
all stores missiles. This will give you increased maneuverability and
acceleration in an emergency. See also Jettison centerline
Take photo Use [Delete] or [*] on the numeric keypad to take shapshots of
whatever is on the screen at any time. These can be reviewed
later during Debriefing.
Video reset Use [O] to reset the gun camera to make videotapes during
Move Some missions can have up to four American sections of
between aircraft with up to two aircraft in each section. Use the
sections following key commands to move between the sections:
Section Command Key (top keyboard row)
1 [Shift] 
2 [Shift] 
3 [Shift] 
4 [Shift] 
Leader/ Just as you can move between sections in a mission, you can
wingman also toggle between the leader and the wingman in your
section. Press [Shift]  to toggle between them.
Unfriendly Press [Shift]  to toggle between the piloted aircraft and
its current unfriendly (if it has one). A Phantom on MiGCAP is
allocated a MiG to engage, and an A-6 on Wild Weasel duty is
allocated a SAM site to destroy. You can view these
unfriendlies by using this key.
Single/ripple Press  on the numeric keypad to toggle between the two bomb
release modes. Single releases one bomb per trigger press.
Ripple release one bomb every second until all bombs on the
station are released, allowing you to lay a line of bombs on a
Missile view Press [Q] to toggle between missile view and piloted aircraft
view. This lets you follow the missile down to the target. If
the missile explodes, the view is lost.
Sensitivity Press [F3] to increase and [F4] to decrease the aircraft's
sensitivity to banking, climbing or diving, on a scale of 0 to
3. You may want to learn making bombing runs at a sensitivity
level of 1 and then progress to a level of 3 in aggressive
Waypoint On any outside view ([F5], [F6], [F8]), press [;] to increase
the waypoint number and ['] to decrease it.[Shift] [;] is used
to toggle between the distances and bearings in the outside
views to three locations.
Carrier gives you the relative bearing and range to your
carrier. The [;] cannot be used to advance or set back the
waypoint if this is the location showing.
Buddy gives you the relative bearing and range to your wingman
The [;] cannot be used to advance or set back the waypoint if
this is the location showing.
Navigate is the default setting. The [;] can only be used if
this is the readout. It gives you the relative bearing and
range to your next waypoint. It is possible that another
message, such as Attack or Land, will appear in this space if
that is the next waypoint for the aircraft. See the next
Press [;] to advance your current waypoint as shown on the
outside views, effectively changing it for the plane. The
readout does not give you the exact waypoint order. Any combat
waypoint order (such as "Drop Paveway", "Fire Walleye", "Drop
Bombs" and "Circle") is shown as "Attack." Any other order is
shown as "Navigate." These readings show up as ATTACK, NAV and
LAND on the DIANE. (The F-4 has no such reading on its radar
Press ['] to set back the current waypoint. If your plane
missed the target, you can use this key to bring back the
Attack waypoint so the plane will go back to the right point
on autopilot and try again.
Look up/down Press [ to look up above the usual cockpit view (a "head up"
view) and ] to look down at the cockpit(a "head down" view).
This latter key can be used in the Phantom again to look even
further to see more instruments. The A-6 only has a "head up"
Zoom Press [F1] to zoom in closer to the aircraft and [F2] to zoom
out. Use in conjunction with the outside view [F5] and the
tracking view [F6]. This key also works with the carrier view
[F9] and the missile view [Q].
View rotation In any non-cockpit view, press  on the keyboard to shift
through different horizontal views of your aircraft. Each
keypress change the orientation along a circle surrounding the
aircraft, starting from the rear up and forward and then from
the front down and back. Press  on the keyboard to cycle
through views moving vertically around the aircraft. Using
[Alternate] with either of these keys rotate the point of view
in the other direction. This key also works with the carrier
view [F9] and the missile view [Q].
Accelerator Press [Tab]to speed up the action during long flights over the
sea. This speeds time up for everybody in the simulation
(friendly or otherwise) and moves you toward the target at
increased speed. The accelerator is automatically deactivated
when you approach the target or when you are approached by a
MiG or SAM. If you don't want automatic deactivation, use
[Shift] [Tab]. You can also toggle the accelerator off by
pressing [Tab] a second time.
Mil Setting The [I] and [M] keys can be used to alter the Mil setting of
the sight on the HUD (see Part VII: Flying and Fighting, the
Mil tables). This measurement is in milliradians, hence the
name. [Shift] [I] and [Shift] [M] increment and decrement the
Mil setting by 10 milliradians.
Emergency net Toggling [Shift] [H] activates and deactivates your emergency
net if you afraid you cannot land your plane normally.
Walleye/Paveway Use [T]to toggle between sight modes when using the Walleye or
sight toggle Paveway guided weapons.
Walleye target Use [J], [I], [L] and [M] to move the Walleye sight around on
setting the screen.
Sound Press [S] to toggle the sound between the options found on the
CONTROL menu. Once you have picked the type of sound you want
from the FILE menu, you can use this key during the game to
toggle between "All Sound On," "Engines Off" and "All Sound
Rudder left Press [Control]  to make a flat turn to the left using the
rudder controls without banking.
Rudder right Press [Control]  to make a flat turn to the right using the
rudder controls without banking.
ASSEMBLY BUILDING IN HANOI LEVELLED!
Rules of Engagement Violated!
The following narrative is from Mike "Moondawg" Weksler, who describes his
mission to duplicate Jake Grafton's attempt to bomb the National Assembly
Building in downtown Hanoi. (Note: "No. 19" is the callsign of Spectrum
Holobyte Product Manager Marisa Ong - hence the references to a supposed
Vietnam-era bomber pilot as "she.")
On 19 June, 02:00, I go to ready room for mission planning. Make sure to hit
[F10] and select Captain, the proper control device, and other applicable
options. After pressing [Esc], I enter my callsign as "Devil, 50" on the duty
roster and proceed to target selection.
I select the power station in Hanoi, with the secondary target being the SAM
site 180 south of Hanoi. I review the photo of the power station and hand the
coordinates to my Bombardier/Navigator (B/N), Virgil "Tiger" Cole, for later
programming into the navigation computer.
I save this, exit out and when everyone has left, go back to get info on the
real objective of this mission: the Assembly Building in downtown Hanoi. "Too
many lives were being sacrificed for worthless targets such as'suspected truck
parks,'" I think as I reflect on "Morg." (Morgan McPherson flew with me on a
"truck park" mission. We had flown together for two years. He was my friend. A
stray bullet killed him on that run).
I note the coordinates for the Assembly Building & load up my original target
file to review the information. Target intelligence provides a map and photos
of the power station, but no photos of the SAM site - just a spot on the map.
We review general intelligence. This shows that the MiG activity in the
vicinity of the primary target is high and ground activity low.
But after we bomb the primary target we're going to violate the Rules of
Engagement and take out that Assembly Building in downtown Hanoi. From the
intelligence I can gather for the Hanoi area,I can see that all enemy activity
would be high. I give Tiger the target info, we grab some coffee and then go
through the routine of donning our flight gear.
On the flight deck, Tiger punches in the waypoints for the power plant strike,
but then adds the waypoint to the Assembly Building with the waypoint editor.
At the first waypoint,he changes the altitude to 500 ft and sets the action to
ripple bombs to make it look like we're gonna dump it all on the primary
target. The second waypoint is also changed to 500 ft and ripple bombs. If we
have to, we'll page to the other A-6 and our bird will fly to the Assembly
Building on its own. He then tabs the Next Section icon and is pleased to see
that we are the only section on this mission. This means we can leave the
primary target area relatively unnoticed and fly to Hanoi.
I can see No. 19,my wingman for this mission and her B/N, Greve, is going over
last minute details on their bird.I approach the Ordies and proceed to go over
the ordnance with the Chief. I offer to take him up on a joyride later if he
agrees to issue us some of the 2000 pounders, instead of the standard strike
load of ten MK82s, one Paveway, and two Walleyes.
He agrees and we load up with five MK84s to penetrate the heavy duty concrete
of the Assembly Building. This leaves no room for the ALQ radar jamming pod so
we'll be flying very low. Tiger makes some remark about pruning tree-tops, but
I'm too nervous to quip back.
It's now 0215. As we ready for the flight, I choose the "A" icon to insure
we're launching at 0230 and we're set up for a bombing run.
I run through the pre-flight checklist (double checking every waypoint and
action) and Tiger checks his equipment out.
I salute the cat officer and with a war whoop hit [Control] [L]. Soon I'm
flying at 8 KIAS above my stall speed. No wind tonight and the carrier is
steaming at 20 KTS - barely enough to get us up. "At least the weather is
calm," I think.
I raise the gear and flaps. Soon, with the aid of [Tab] to accelerate the time
rate, we are at 325 KIAS at 25,000 feet. "We're gonna have to go nice and slow
on ingress to save fuel," I say to Tiger. He clicks his mike in response. I
page to No. 19 in Devil 502 just as she is launching.
I can see my jet climbing out of her cockpit. "No transcendental meditation
would let me do this," I murmur. Greve was having problems with his NAV and
targeting computer.DIANE was on the blink, and he would have to bomb direct. I
page back to my jet.
At 74 NMs from Downtown I start descent and go through the master arm
checklist. At 500'I level off and call feet wet. By staying low and flying "up
the river," we seem to have avoided the enemy. They know we're coming and my
warning lights are all lit up,but they can't get a lock on us as we blend into
the ground return.The terrain is so flat that we frequently fly below 200'. No
tracers, no nothing. Can't hit [Tab] because we'd hit the ground. We approach
the target. I let Devil 502 go in first because she can strike lower than us
because we have MK84s. I climb up to 2000' and Tiger says that the pickle is
hot. I watch Devil 502 take out the target. "Better go in and drop one off for
good measure," Tiger says. I climb higher, then dive at the target. The attack
indicator lights up and I watch the little block in my VDT move closer to the
center. It starts to fill in and as I fly closer to the target, the horizontal
release indicator comes on. When it hits the bottom of the screen, I release
and place the 2000 pounder right in the boiler. We feel the turbulence of the
blast as we destroy what's left of the target.
Tracers light up the sky, but I fly over them like a high jumper just clearing
the bar. I can't get below 2000' until we are clear of the target area. We
still have four 2000 pounders left for the Assembly Building. "We'd better get
down to business," Tiger murmurs.
I page to Devil 502,hit the [;] until the waypoint reads "Land" and invoke her
ILS with the [F7]. Then I switch back to my lead position.
It comes as no surprise when Devil 502 radios to me with a system malfunction.
Something is wrong with her NAV computer and she is going to bug out. I radio
back that I am enroute to the SAM site south of Hanoi but have to change
course to avoid some AAA. We are now alone.
So far, no enemy aircraft on RWR. All clear on ingress to Hanoi. As we
approach the city, I climb up to 4000' and Tiger pinpoints the Assembly
Building. He says, "Your pickle is hot," and I dive for the target. It looked
just like the Intelligence I had acquired."This one is for you, Morg!" I think
as I squeeze the release button. All of the MK84s hit their target.We feel the
repercussions from the explosions as distinct thuds violently shake our
I realize I flew too low. The damage warnings light up the B/N panel. Either
our own bomb explosions got us or the AAA has us locked. I can see tracers. So
I hug the ground so close I'm afraid I'll snag a clothesline. Circling around
to make sure the building is destroyed,I see that I've unfortunately taken out
the next-door building too. I only wanted to damage the leadership. Hope no
civilians were in that next building.
I hit the [;] to start egress. When we are clear of enemy fire, we survey the
damage. The COMED is useless; the radar must have taken the damage. However,
the NAV computer is still functioning enough to guide our autopilot back to
the landing waypoint on the Shiloh.
I throttle to full Mil power, hugging the ground and managing to somehow
extend on the bogies scrambling to intercept us. Tiger breaks the silence with
a "Fancy shootin' pardner,"as we head for the coast; we know we've disturbed a
wasp's nest; now they are going to buzz around our faces, ready to sting.
I page to Devil 502 as she calls feet wet. She must have run into some MiGs or
taken a SAM hit or something...Everything is Foxtrot Uniform in this bird. The
COMED is just black. Somehow, it is still flying. I page back to my own A-6.
"What are you doing popping in and out of here all the time?" Tiger growls.
"Don't you know the autopilot makes us climb? I was a sitting duck while you
were gone!" He's right. My panel shows a SAM launch. Talk about pucker factor!
A second SAM launches before I can dive into the ground return. "Jake, it's
closin' fast... Five o'clock!" I dump some chaff and almost fly the bird into
the ground. I black out as I pull up but am still in control.
When my vision clears the first SAM is gone. Must have hit the ground as we
pulled out of the dive. We're now off course at angels 2. The second SAM is
still closing. I hit the chaff button and dump as much as I can. Multiple
bogies are still closing. Almost to the coast now. I dump more chaff and jink
out of the way of the remaining SAM as it goes off guidance.We can see the SAM
go right past the right wing. "Get down!" Tiger yells at me.
I skim the trees the rest of the way back to the coast. I blend in with the
ground return and fly along the river. No further SAM launches. The AAA light
is still lit,but I know they can no longer single me out of the ground return.
I call Feet Wet and start my ascent. I know that when I get back I'm going to
catch hell for this. Maybe even a court-martial in the Debriefing mode. "Bingo
fuel," is all that Tiger says as he reminds me to throttle back. At angels 2,
all I can wish for is the KA-6 to fly by and give us a fill-up,but I know that
it's not flying. I hit the autopilot and sit back, pressing [Tab].
I avoid paging Devil 502 because if it lands while I'm in it, the mission is
over. Checking every way out of my own cockpit shows no sign of my wingman.
"Must be on final," I think.
The sky is clear and we seem to be the last ones up. I invoke the ILS with the
[F7] and line up my needles. Tiger and I remain silent. The LSO doesn't even
ask me to call the ball. OK, throttle back, flaps, gear and hook down. Needles
lined up, I can see the meatball. I'm too low. Climbing. Now I'm too high.
Can't seem to line up. KIAS is 174 and I'm 400'. Needles high and center, fuel
1000 pounds. I shove the nose forward and hit the deck with a force that we
both are sure will push the landing gear struts through the wings.Then we feel
the reassuring tug of the number four wire and start to breathe again.
Devil 501, over, out.
ALPHA STRIKE VIETNAM, Jeffrey L. Levinson, Presidio Press, 1989
...AND KILL MIGS, revised edition, Lou Drendel, Squadron/Signal Publications,
THE AVIATION/SPACE DICTIONARY, 7th edition, Larry Reithmaier, Aero division of
TAB Books Inc., 1990
F-4 PHANTOM II IN ACTION, Larry Davis, Squadron/Signal Publications,
Carrollton, Texas, 1984
F-4 PHANTOM IN DETAIL AND SCALE, VOLs 7 & 12, Bert Kinzey, Aero division of
TAB Books Inc., 1982
FLIGHT OF THE INTRUDER, Stephen Coonts, Naval Institute Press, 1986
THE HUNGRY TIGERS, Frank O'Brien, Aero division of TAB Books Inc., 1985
INTRUDER, Roger Chesneau, Linewrights Ltd., 1986
THE MCDONNELL F-4 PHANTOM, Robert F. Dorr, Aero division of TAB Books Inc.,
MODERN AIR COMBAT, Bill Gunston and Mike Spick, Salamander Books Limited,
MODERN COMBAT AIRCRAFT, INTRUDER VOLUME 26, Ian Allan Ltd. distributed in
U.S.A. by Motorbooks International, 1987
MODERN COMBAT AIRCRAFT, PHANTOM VOLUME, Ian Allan Ltd.distributed in U.S.A. by
Motorbooks International, 1977
MODERN COMBAT AIRCRAFT, THUNDERCHIEF VOLUME, Ian Allan Ltd. distributed in
U.S.A. by Motorbooks International, 1981
MODERN FIGHTING AIRCRAFT, Volume 4 F-4 Phantom, Richardson and Spick,
Salamander Books Limited, London, 1987
MODERN FIGHTING AIRCRAFT, Volume 9 MiGs, Bill Sweetman, A Salamander Book
published in the U.S.A. by Arco Publishing Inc., New York, 1985
MODERN SOVIET WEAPONS, Edited by Ray Bonds, Salamander Books Ltd., 1986
PAK SIX, G.I. Basel, Associated Creative Writers, La Mesa, California, 1982
PHANTOM OVER VIETNAM, John Trotti, U.S.A. Presidio Press, 1984
TONKIN GULF YACHT CLUB, Rene J. Francillon, Naval Institute Press, 1988
TOP GUN, George Hall, Presidio Press, 1987
USN PHANTOMS IN COMBAT, Lou Drendel, Squadron/Signal Publications, 1988
ThE EnD... Fixed By [RYGAR] to 79 columns, all atari st shit removed!
greetings to the guy who typed all this..