Flight Simulator II - Manual
TABLE OF CONTENTS
FLIGHT TRAINING AND TRAINING AIDS................................ 9
RUNNING THE PROGRAM.............................................. 11
System Requirements....................................... 11
Joystick Setup (Optional)................................. 11
Booting the Disk.......................................... 11
A Quick Test Flight....................................... 12
Amiga Standard Conventions................................ 12
Amiga Standard Differences................................ 14
File Selection............................................ 14
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS, RADIOS, AND VISUAL SYSTEMS................... 17
Menu Bar.................................................. 17
The Three-Dimensional Display............................. 18
The Instrument Panel and Radio Stack...................... 20
The Standardized Instrument Cluster....................... 20
Other Instruments......................................... 23
Engine Monitoring Instruments............................. 24
Control Position Indicators............................... 25
Indicator Icon Boxes...................................... 26
AIRCRAFT CONTROLS................................................ 27
Mouse and Keyboard Interaction............................. 27
Primary Flight Controls.................................... 28
Keyboard Primary Flight Controls........................... 32
Joystick Primary Flight Controls........................... 37
VIEW CONTROLS.................................................... 39
View Mode Selection........................................ 39
Zoom Control............................................... 40
Cockpit View Direction Control............................. 40
Set Spot Plane............................................. 40
Second Three Dimensional Window............................ 44
Three Dimensional Window On/Off........................... 44
Map Display............................................... 45
Aspect Ratio.............................................. 45
SECONDARY AIRCRAFT CONTROLS...................................... 47
FLYING THE AIRCRAFT.............................................. 53
Flight Under VFR Conditions............................... 53
Getting Familiar with the Aircraft........................ 53
Pre-Takeoff Check......................................... 55
Straight and Level, Constant-Altitude Flight.............. 57
Glides and Descents....................................... 57
Aircraft Refueling and Servicing.......................... 60
FLYING THE BUSINESS JET.......................................... 61
Flight Characteristics.................................... 61
Flying Techniques......................................... 62
ENVIRONMENT CONTROL.............................................. 65
Menu Options.............................................. 65
Selecting Season.......................................... 65
Setting Time of Day....................................... 65
Setting Cloud Levels...................................... 66
Setting Wind and Turbulence............................... 66
SIMULATION CONTROL............................................... 69
Menu Options.............................................. 69
Pause and Cursor Pause.................................... 69
Partial Panel............................................. 72
Control Sensitivity....................................... 72
Map Display Options and Control........................... 75
The "World" and World Navigation.......................... 75
World Specifications...................................... 76
Getting Around in the World............................... 76
NAVIGATIONAL AIDS................................................ 81
VOR Navigation............................................ 81
Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) Navigation............. 91
Automatic Direction Finder (ADF).......................... 91
Instrument Landing System (ILS)........................... 91
Airport Beacons........................................... 92
SAVING AND RECALLING SITUATIONS.................................. 97
The Situation Menu........................................ 97
Selecting a Prerecorded Situation......................... 97
Creating and Naming Your Own Situations................... 97
Instant Replay............................................ 98
ADVANCED FLIGHT TECHNIQUES...................................... 101
Maneuvers and Advanced Maneuvers......................... 101
Uncoordinated Flight..................................... 102
Instrument Flight........................................ 104
WORLD WAR I ACE................................................. 107
Starting the Game........................................ 107
WWI Ace Controls......................................... 107
Fighting the Fighters.................................... 108
Fighter Mode Instrumentation............................. 108
Using Radar.............................................. 110
Getting Shot Down........................................ 110
Becoming an Ace.......................................... 111
MULTI PLAYER.................................................... 113
Connecting Two Machines Together.......................... 113
Establishing a Connection Between Modems.................. 114
Direct Cable Connections.................................. 116
Multi Player Flight....................................... 116
Sending and Receiving Messages............................ 117
Other Multi Player Options................................ 118
Suggestions for Multi Player Flight....................... 118
APPENDIX I - REFERENCE FIGURES.................................. 121
INDEX .......................................................... 125
Welcome to the Flight Simulator II microcomputer-based flight simulator.
This simulator runs on the Amiga computer with single floppy disk drive. It
offers aircraft flight simulation that considers 47 important aircraft
characteristics and provides multiple window out-the-window and
control-tower views using a 3D flight display. Extensive flight controls
(accessible using the mouse or keyboard) and minimum VFR and IFR
instrumentation as specified by the FAA are displayed in a movable window.
Flight Simulator II features detailed graphics that closely simulate a
pilot's actual perspective. The "68000 Precision Graphics Driver" presents
solid- modeled images with hidden surface elimination and surface shading
with much greater accuracy than any previous microcomputer Flight
Simulator. The world is more than 10,000 by 10,000 miles square with a
resolution of about one one- hundredth of an inch.
Flight Simulator II simulates two types of aircraft: a single engine, high
performance, propeller driven aircraft of the Cessna 182 class, and a
business jet of the Gates LearJet 25g class. The Cessna 182 type single
engine prop aircraft is an ideal plane for pilot training because it has
climb performance and speed that keep a pilot busy, especially on landing
approach. The plane is slightly superior to an advanced World War I
fighter. This aircraft's simulation is designed for realism and presents
the feeling of flying this particular aircraft in a real-life situation.
The business jet simulation is designed more for fun than realism. The
aircraft is very easy to fly, is quite aerobatic, and lets you see what it
is like to fly at 450 knots and 50,000 feet altitude.
Flight Simulator II will help you learn about flight. It is not, however, a
substitute for a flight training course. If you want more information on
learning to fly, we recommend that you read the Flight Training Handbook
published by the FAA, or check with your local airport for information
about certified flight training courses.
FLIGHT TRAINING AND TRAINING AIDS
Flight Simulator II is useful in many flight training areas (navigation,
visual orientation, and illustration of flight fundamentals). Although the
simulator is entertaining and flies surprisingly like a real airplane,
there is no substitute for a good flight training course that includes
ground school and flight time in real aircraft.
The regulations regarding the logging of simulated instrument approaches
(for general aviation under FAA Regulations Part 61.57) are hazy. SubLOGIC
is pursuing the topic of acceptance and approval by the FAA (perhaps with
the addition of flight-control hardware).
This manual explains flight simulator behavior and basic flying techniques.
It is not a thorough flight instruction course. Further training handbooks
and maps will be very helpful, especially for the novice pilot. Flight
manuals and maps are available at FBOs (Fixed Base Operators) or flight
training schools at most airports. They may also be obtained directly from
mail order suppliers such as Sporty's Pilot Shop, Clermont County Airport,
Batavia, Ohio 45103, (613) 732-24-1 1. The following publications are
For the novice pilot with no manuals yet:
Flight Training Handbook. Latest revision. U.S. Department of
Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration.
Aviation Fundamentals. 6th Edition. Jeppesen Sanderson, Inc.
Instrument Flying Handbook. Latest revision. U.S. Department of
Transportation, Federal Aviation Administration.
For all pilots:
Airman's Information Manual. Latest edition. Aero Publishers Inc.
Seattle Sectional Aeronautical Chart
Los Angeles Sectional Aeronautical Chart
New York Sectional Aeronautical Chart
Chicago Sectional Aeronautical Chart
San Francisco Sectional Aeronautical Chart
RUNNING THE PROGRAM
Before delving into aircraft controls and instrumentation, it's a good idea
to get the simulator running. The startup procedures will be covered now.
You will need the following:
1. An Amiga computer with at least 5l2K of memory.
2. A mouse.
3. A color or monochrome monitor.
4. A joystick.
JOYSTICK SETUP (OPTIONAL)
If you will be using a joystick for flight controls, plug it in outer
connector slot number 1.
BOOTING THE DISK
1. Turn the Amiga power on.
2. Insert your KickStart disk.
3. Insert the Flight Simulator II disk. Flight Simulator II will load
If no mouse movement is detected within 30 seconds after loadup, Flight
Simulator II automatically goes into quiet demo mode. Get out of auto-demo
clicking the mouse. The DEMO RESET window will appear. Click the CLOSE box
in the upper left comer of the window and press [P] to fly the aircraft.
Instrument and control functions are documented on-disk. Information about
aircraft types and program updates can be found under the INFO menu on the
Information about flight instruments and menu bar items can be selected by
pressing the [Help] key. The cursor will turn into a "question mark"
pointer. Point to items on the instrument panel or menu bar and press the
left mouse button. If information for the selected item is available, a
dialog box with the information will appear. Click the CLOSE box to turn
off the message.
A QUICK TEST FLIGHT
The following steps are presented to get you flying as quickly as possible.
This procedure gives an idea of what the simulator is all about and
satisfies the urge to take the plane out for its first flight without
reading the airplane flight manual first.
1 . Boot your Flight Simulator II disk.
2. You are now on runway 27 Right at Oakland International Airport. A
cursor should be present on the screen. Point the cursor anywhere on the
3D out-the-windshield view and press the right mouse button. Don't move
the mouse after this click. The mouse is now in control yoke mode.
3. Press the [H] keyboard key to look out the right side of the airplane.
You should see a mountain range off in the distance.
4. Press [F10] two times to zoom in and get a closer look.
5. Press [F9] two times to zoom back out.
6. Press [N] to look out the right rear. Part of the runway and Mount
Diablo are visible.
7. Press [F] to look out the left window.
8. Press [T] to revert to front view.
9. Now, being careful not to move the mouse before pressing a button, press
the left mouse button down and drag the mouse about 6 inches forward
with the button held down. This will give you full throttle.
10. Release the left mouse button and move the mouse backward about an
inch. This will give a bit of "stick back", or up elevator. The plane
should take off by itself. You'll be able to see when you leave the
11. Press [B] for a rear view as you climb out.
12. Press [T] for a front view again.
13. Press the right mouse button. A cursor will appear. Click on the menu
bar items at the top of the screen to see the sort of menu options
available, but don't choose any options at this time. Click anywhere
off of the active menu to erase all menu boxes.
14. Point the cursor at the 3D screen and press the right mouse button to
put it back into control yoke mode.
15. Move the mouse about an inch to the right. The airplane will start to
16. When you attain about 20 degrees of bank, move the mouse about an inch
to the left. This should stop the banking increase.
17. Watch the scenery as the plane turns. By this time you may be in range
of the Oakland Bay Bridge or even downtown San Francisco.
18. Now, move the mouse about 3 inches to the left and leave it there for a
minute or two.
19. After a crash, Flight Simulator II resets and returns you to your
AMIGA STANDARD CONVENTIONS
In order to provide additional useful functions, a few standard Amiga
conventions were followed. If you are a frequent Amiga computer user, these
conventions should be quite familiar to you already.
Items are selected using the left mouse button as usual. The menu system
doesn't act exactly like a standard Amiga menu. It uses the left button
instead of the right, and the menu bar is always visible. To select items,
simply point at them and click the left mouse button.
A few standard Amiga keypress conventions are used. For example when
entering text in a window, the [cursor up] and [cursor down] keys can be
used to select items. The text entry cursor comes up at the beginning of
the line. Use the [cursor left] and [cursor right] keys to move to the
character you want to change. Use the [DEL] key to delete characters at the
cursor position, or [BACKSPACE] to delete characters to the left of the
cursor. New numbers may be entered either from the keypad or the keyboard.
After changing an item, press the [Return] key to enter it.
Windows and dialog boxes often have SIZE boxes and CLOSE boxes. These are
used to vary the size of the window and to specify that you are through
making selections respectively.
AMIGA STANDARD DIFFERENCES
Some aspects of Flight Simulator II don't follow Amiga standard
The Map and 3D windows may overlap each other, and may be overlapped by
any of the various menus, but nothing may overlap the control panel. If you
want to have a full-screen 3D out-the-windshield view, you must first slide
the control panel window out of the way.
The right mouse button may be single-clicked in place of a left button
double-click. This can be useful when the cursor is overlapping the
instrument panel, in which case double-clicking is not recognized.
Flight Simulator II has four flight modes and two demonstration modes:
PROP: A single engine prop-driven aircraft.
JET: A business Jet.
WWI ACE: A World War I dogfight game.
MULTI PLAYER: A mode that allows you to connect two computers
(using a cable or modems) and fly two planes together.
DEMO: A demonstration program that self-flies the plane.
QUIET DEMO: Performs the demo with all sound turned off.
(NOTE: If you start Flight Simulator II but don't move the mouse within 30
seconds, the program automatically goes into QUIET DEMO mode. You can stop
this auto-demo by clicking the mouse button. The cursor will appear on the
screen, and you can then select an operating mode from the FILE menu.)
Flight Simulator II begins in PROP mode, so there will be a check mark
The FILE menu also includes several options which are settable for any
ORIENTATION MARKER: Determines whether the orientation marker will
TITLES ON WINDOW: Determines whether identifying title bars will
appear at the top of 3D and Map windows.
ASPECT RATIO LOCK: Determines whether the field of view of 3D
windows will change dependent upon the
horizontal and vertical size of the window, or
will remain constant.
SHADER: Determines whether objects such as buildings,
aircraft, and water will be shaded or just
Depending on the current mode, any of these items might be check-marked.
FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS, RADIOS, AND VISUAL SYSTEMS
Flight Simulator II has all the instruments and equipment required under
FAA regulations (part 91.33) for day and night Visual Flight Rules (VFR)
and day and night Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) under non-icing conditions.
This program follows the Amiga computer's general philosophy of window,
cursor, and mouse interaction. A few new concepts such as using the mouse
as a control yoke as well as a cursor control must be learned, but
generally, i f you're familiar with using the Amiga, you will feel right at
home using Flight Simulator II. This section describes the instruments,
radios, and windows so that you will recognize them when they appear. The
next section (Aircraft CONTROLS) gets into how to interact with the windows
and fly the plane.
Windows are used for all Flight Simulator II displays. Figure 1 shows the
basic display configuration on a color monitor.
The menu bar at the top of the screen presents options used to control the
simulation. To select an item, position the cursor on the menu title and
click the 1 mouse button. Move the cursor down to the command you wish to
select and click again. This second click will both select your option and
cause the menu to ga away. If you decide to not choose any command, click
anywhere outside the menu and the menu will go away. The menu items form
the following command categories:
INFO: Information about Flight Simulator II, aircraft specs, and
FILE: Select a major operating mode (WWI ACE or DEMO for
example). Also used to select display characteristics and to
quit the program.
VIEW: Selects between COCKPIT, TOWER, TRACK, and SPOT
view. Keyboard keys are more convenient for these
functions and are specified on the VIEW menu.
ENVIRO: Seasons, clouds, wind, and other environmental factors
can be altered. These are features external from the
SIM: Simulation factors that are internal to the aircraft
and simulation system are adjustable. These include
reliability, pause, and sound.
NAV: Navigational factors including your location in the
world are adjustable. The map display is also
activated using this menu.
SITUATION: You can begin flight in a set of canned situations, or you
can capture and save your own situations using this menu.
Specifics of these menu options are described in later sections.
THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISPLAY
The window that usual!y occupies the top half of the display screen is the
3D display (see Figure 1). This is the view out your windshield, your side
Windows, or from the control tower depending upon which view you select.
The title bar on top of the window tells the view mode. Through this window
you can see the runway, terrain, and horizon. You can also see the airplane
you are flying if you have tower or spot view selected.
The visual effects of the Flight Simulator II program are realistic. Solid
shaded surfaces give the feeling of depth and substance. Cloudy days bring
dark skies unless you break out of the clouds and reach blue sky. As you
fly through the clouds, visibility is obscured. At night, lights on the
ground are your only visual reference.
At the bottom center of the 3D screen is the "center orientation marker".
Pilots judge the attitude of their aircraft by the relationship of the
airplane to outside visual references. The 3D display is a variable-sized
window (notice the SIZE box in the lower right corner) so you must rely on
the center orientation marker (or wingtip markers when looking out side
views) as the aircraft-to-scenery visual reference.
You can move the 3D window around on the screen by dragging the title bar
at the top of the 3D window. Title bars on Flight Simulator II are not as
Figure 1. Flight Display on Color Monitor
they are on most other programs, but they serve a similar function. By
double clicking on a title bar, you can expand the window to its full size.
You can use the SIZE box to change the window's size. You can move windows
by dragging the title bar position at the top of the window even when
window titles are turned off.
There are limitations on how big you can "grow" the 3D screen. You can't
overwrite the instrument panel, for example. The program automatically
limits expansion so you don't have to worry about what the limits are.
The smaller you make the 3D image, the faster it will update, You can also
turn off the center orientation marker and title bars to increase update
rate. The plane is more controllable when the screen is updating quickly,
so on landing approach and other critical maneuvers, shrink the screen down
to no more than half the full screen size. For sight-seeing and slow
flight, slowly-updating full-screen images give better detail.
THE INSTRUMENT PANEL AND RADIO STACK
The instrument panel and radio stack window occupies the lower half of the
screen. The panel can be moved downward by dragging it by the top of the
window. This makes room for a larger 3D view and map display. Double
clicking on the top of the window puts the panel back into its normal
Instruments on the panel and radios in the stack are arranged as they would
be in nearly any aircraft. The style of these instruments varies from plane
to plane. The most modern form of each is used in Flight Simulator II.
Appropriate instruments (high-speed airspeed indicator and ADF readout) are
switched in when Learjet or ADF modes are selected.
THE STANDARDIZED INSTRUMENT CLUSTER
The six basic flight instruments are grouped in the standardized instrument
cluster shown in Reference Figure 1 in APPENDIX I of this manual. This
1 . Airspeed Indicator (indicates airspeed in knots).
2. Attitude Indicator or Artificial Horizon.
3. Altimeter (altitude in feet above sea level, not above ground level).
4. Turn Coordinator.
5. Heading Indicator (directional gyro or gyro-compass).
6. Vertical Speed Indicator or Rate of Climb Indicator (reads in hundreds
of feet per minute).
These instruments are arranged as they would be in nearly any aircraft. The
style of these instruments varies from plane to plane. The most modern
forms are used in this simulator.
Airspeed Indicator (item 1)
This instrument measures airspeed in knots. This is an
air-pressure-activated gauge and indicates the speed the aircraft is moving
through the air around it. This gauge does not show ground speed.
Attitude Indicator or Artificial Horizon (item 2)
The words "artificial horizon" summarize this instrument's function.
Markings on the instrument's face did you in determining the aircraft's
pitch and bank attitudes. The center bar, when aligned with the horizon,
indicates straight and level flight. Bank markings at the edge of the
instrument indicate 10-, 20-, 30-, and 60-degree banks. The bank indicator
(a small arrow at the top of the gauge) points to the bank markings. The
arrow is stationary at the top of the gauge - the markings around the edge
move. Horizontal markings near the center indicate nose-up and nose-down
pitch angles of 10 and 20 degrees.
Altimeter (item 3)
Altitude in feet above sea level is measured. This gauge is read as a clock
face with 10 instead of 12 divisions. The small hand indicates thousands of
feet, while the large hand indicates hundreds. The FS2 altimeter has fine
20-foot increments between the 100-foot markings. Atmospheric pressure
operates this gauge. Barometric pressure changes caused by changes in the
weather can cause errors in the altitude reading, so pilots flying below 1
8,000 feet must often calibrate this gauge to the barometric pressure of
the airspace through which they are flying. The small knob on the gauge is
used to set the barometric pressure in the small square window on the face
of the altimeter. The FS2's altimeter can be adjusted for barometric
pressure by clicking on the knob.
A small arrow near the outside of the gauge acts as the gauge's "third
hand" which indicates tens of thousands of feet. Remember, this gauge reads
altitude above sea level, not ground level. At an airport at a 750 ft.
elevation, the altimeter reads 750 ft. while sitting on the ground (after
barometric pressure adjustment).
Turn Coordinator (item 4)
The airplane front silhouette indicates rate of turn. No numerical value is
presented on this gauge. Instead, a single turn rate position is marked.
When the gauge aligns with the L or R, a 2-minute turn results (a turn rate
of 180 degrees per minute). The turn coordinator, unlike the turn indicator
gauge used in some planes, uses a 35-degree canted gyroscope that reflects
both bank and heading changes. Pitch, however, has no effect on this gauge.
The ball portion of the turn indicator is a slip/skid indicator that
indicates the degree of aircraft coordination. When the ball is centered,
the aircraft's longitudinal axis is parallel to the direction of flight and
the flight is coordinated. Coordinated turns are the safest turns and
require appropriate amounts of bank and yaw using ailerons and rudder. Some
maneuvers (notably slips and skids) are not coordinated. These will be
covered in the ADVANCED FLIGHT TECHNIQUES section of this manual.
Heading Indicator or Directional Gyro (item 5)
This is basically a gyroscopically-controlled compass. This compass is much
more responsive and steady than the magnetic compass (item 7) which tends
to bob around unless the aircraft is flying smooth, straight, and is not
accelerating or decelerating. The FS2's heading indicator shows both course
(top readout) and reciprocal course (bottom readout). The heading
indicator, being gyroscopically operated, has no inherent direction seeking
characteristics and must be set manually using the magnetic compass before
a flight. Gyroscopic procession and the earth's rotation cause the
gyro-compass to drift over a short period of time, so the pilot should
occasionally (at least a couple times per hour) adjust the gyro-compass to
match the magnetic compass.
The FS2's heading indicator can be set to the current magnetic compass
heading by clicking the heading indicator's knob. Make sure the magnetic
compass has settled down after a turn or airspeed change to avoid an
erroneous heading setting.
Vertical Speed Indicator (item 6)
This instrument shows rate of climb or descent in hundreds of feet per
minute. This gauge operates on air-pressure change and is not adversely
affected by absolute barometric pressure. New pilots are cautioned not to
"chase" this gauge in pursuit of constant-altitude flight. The gauge lags
slightly behind the aircraft's responses and so will the pilot's responses
if this gauge is chased.
Magnetic Compass (item 7)
This instrument appears at the top of the panel above the radios. This is a
standard magnetic compass. It is assumed to be magnetically correct and
requires no correction card to interpret. The compass is subject to
isogonic effects (variations in the versus magnetic north).
Omni-Bearing Indicator with Glide Slope (items 8 and 9)
Item 8 is a navigation and landing approach instrument that is used in
conJunction with the NAV radio and VOR stations. This instrument and its
operation will be explained in the NAVIGATIONAL AIDS section. A second
omni-bearing indicator (item 9) with retro glide slope is provided. Two NAV
radios and omni-bearing indicators are useful in navigation and greatly
simplify instrument flight.
Clock (item 10)
This is a standard digital clock that measures hours, minutes and seconds.
This clock runs in real time. Under the 1982 Federal Aviation Regulations,
a digital presentation qualifies for IFR flight in lieu of an analog sweep
second hand clock.
O, M, and I Lights (item 11)
These indicators are the Outer, Middle, and Inner marker lights that are
used on instrument approaches.
ENGINE MONITORING INSTRUMENTS
Left fuel tank gauge (item 12)
Right fuel tank gauge (item 13)
Oil temperature gauge (item 14)
C and H stand for Cold and Hot oil temperature.
Oil pressure gauge (item IS)
L and H stand for Low and High oil pressure.
Digital tachometer (item 16)
Indicates engine RPM.
Six radios are provided: the NAV1 and NAV2 (navigation), COM
(communication), DME (distance measuring equipment), ADF (automatic
direction finder), and transponder.
Navigation radios (items 17 and 18)
These are used to tune-in and identify VOR navigation aids (to be covered
later). These are 200-channel radios that receive frequencies between
108.00 and 117.95 MHz with 50 kHz separation. These receivers control the
omni-bearing-indicators (Reference Figure 1, items 8 and 9). The NAV 1
radio controls the top omni-bearing indicator, and the NAV2 radio controls
the bottom omni-bearing indicator.
DME radio (item 19)
This is tuned to the NAV1's VOR station. Its digits tell you how many
nautical miles from the VOR station you are.
ADF Automatic Direction Finder (item 20)
Used to tune non-directional radio beacons (NDBs). When the ADF option is
selected, the bearing indicator (the gauge used with the ADF receiver)
takes the place of VOR2, and the ADF receiver replaces the NAV2 radio. The
ADF receiver covers the frequencies from 2OOkHz to 1699kHz in 1kHz
Communication radio (item 21)
This is a 360-channel transceiver that covers frequencies between 118.00
and 135.95 MHz with 50 kHz separation. The flight simulator uses the COM
radio as a receiver only. Airport, weather, and approach information can be
received by tuning in Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS) which
is available near major airports. The area maps give the ATIS frequencies
for each airport where ATIS is available. The common traffic advisory
frequency is listed for airports with no ATIS.
Transponder (item 22)
This radio is used to identify your aircraft on Air traffic Control radar.
Encoding Altimeter and ELT (not on panel)
Two additional radios are added for the sake of completeness. An encoding
altimeter is hidden behind the instrument panel (so ATC can check your
altitude), and an emergency locator transmitter is mounted behind the back
seats (so you can be rescued when you crash).
CONTROL POSITION INDICATORS
Aileron Position Indicator (item 23)
Indicates the ailerons position. When the arrow on the indicator is aligned
with the center mark, the ailerons are centered. When the arrow points to
the right of the center mark, right aileron is applied. When the arrow
points to the left, left aileron is applied.
Elevator Position Indicator (item 24)
Indicates elevator position. When the indicator is aligned with the center
mark, the elevator is centered. When it is above the center mark, the
elevator is raised.
Rudder Position Indicator (item 25)
This indicator works just like the aileron indicator. In auto-coordinated
flight mode, the aileron and rudder position indicators work together.
Throttle Position Indicator (item 26)
Indicates how much throttle is applied. The indicator goes up on the screen
as more throttle is applied
Elevator Trim Indicator (item 17)
This shows the elevator trim setting. The sense of direction corresponds to
the elevator indicator.
INDICATOR ICON BOXES
Carb Heat Indicator (item 28)
Indicates whether carburetor heat is turned on or off.
Landing gear indicator (item 29)
Indicates whether the landing gear is lowered or raised.
Flap position indicator (item 30)
Shows the position of the flaps.
Magnetos Indicator (item 31)
This indicator shows the condition of the magneto switch (OFF, LFT, RGT,
BOTH, START, LEAN).
Lights Indicator (item 32)
This indicator tells whether the aircraft's lights are on or off.
Mouse/Yoke indicator (item 33)
Indicates whether the mouse is controlling the cursor or the control yoke.
The word "CURS" or "YOKE" will tell which is currently under control.
Zoom indicator (item 34)
Indicates the visual display zoom factor.
Autopilot Status Indicator (item 35)
Indicates whether the autopilot is on or off.
Flight Simulator II, like a real aircraft, has many controls: engine
function controls, flight controls, and navigation and communication
radios. All the controls are necessary for safe, efficient flight, but only
the primary flight controls are needed to get you flying.
The first steps in getting Flight Simulator II off the ground are to learn
about the mouse and keyboard interactions involved in flying the simulator,
then get proficient at using the primary flight controls. The view controls
and secondary controls can be learned later.
MOUSE AND KEYBOARD INTERACTION
In Flight Simulator II, the mouse operates in two modes: YOKE and CURSOR.
Mouse Yoke Model In yoke mode, the mouse acts as the aircraft's control
yoke or stick. Figure 2 shows mouse functions in yoke mode. Movements
forward and backward control aircraft pitch (nose up and down), and left
and right movements control bank, which causes you to turn left or right.
In yoke mode the mouse acts as if it's the tip of a large joystick. The
elevator and rudder position indicators on the control panel move as the
mouse is moved.
Throttle and brakes are also mouse-controlled in yoke mode. Holding the
left button down and dragging the mouse forward and backward increases and
decreases throttle. Dragging the mouse to the left applies brakes, and
dragging to the right releases them. The throttle indicator on the panel
shows throttle movement (engine RPM also changes as you move the throttle),
and a brakes indicator near the center orientation marker indicates that
brakes are applied. Brakes are only effective on the ground and are
automatically released when you are in the are (to avoid landing with
Double-clicking the left button (or pressing the right button) toggles
between cursor and yoke mode.
The mouse control sensitivity is adjustable by selecting CONTROL
SENSITIVITY under the SIM menu. See the SIMULATION CONTROL section of this
manual for details.
Mouse Cursor Mode: The mouse is used to select menu items similar to the
usual Operating System way when in cursor mode. A pointer moves about the
screen and you can click from menu bars using the left button. Pointing at
the 3D screen or mouse icon on the control panel and double clicking (or
pressing the right button) puts you back into yoke mode.
Keypresses: Keyboard key functions are summarized in Reference Figure 2 in
APPENDIX I of this manual. All keypress functions except rudder pedals are
also available from mouse-selectable menus. For example, you can use the
[C] key to select control tower view, or you can select VIEW from the menu
bar and then pick your view from the menu.
Both mouse and keyboard should be used when flying Flight Simulator II.
Although there are mouse commands for nearly all functions, the large
number of controls makes it hard to get at some of them quickly. To change
view using the mouse would require you to double click into cursor mode,
select the menu bar, drag to the VIEW menu item, point at the 3D screen and
double click back into yoke mode. It's quicker and less disrupting to press
the [C] key, especially on a final approach when yoke control is so
If you fired that you don't remember a certain key code, it is convenient
to select the function from the menu. The key code is always shown in
brackets next to the function. this will remind you of the key to use next
PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROLS
The primary flight controls include the control yoke (a steering-wheel-like
control on most planes, a control stick on others), the rudder pedals, the
throttle, and brakes. The mouse, when placed into yoke mode (by pressing
the right button or clicking the mouse icon on the control panel), performs
elevator, aileron, throttle and brake controls.
Familiarize yourself with the definitions of yaw, pitch, and roll (see
Figure 3). Fig. 3 also shows the aircraft control surfaces (movable wing
sections that cause the aircraft to yaw, pitch and roll about its axes).
Mouse movements correspond to the physical positioning of the yoke and
rudder pedals in an aircraft
Move Mouse to Control Elevators and Ailerons
/|\ Nose down
| (down elevator)
Left bank |\_____________/|
(left aileron) | | __ __ | |
<---------------- | | | | | | | | ---------------->
| | |__| |__| | | Right bank
| | / | | (right aileron)
| | / | |
| | / | |
| | / | |
| |__/________| |
Press right button | Nose up
(or double click \|/ (up elevator)
left button) to
select cursor mode
Drag Mouse to Control Brakes and Throttle
| Hold left button down
Apply | | __ / __ | |
brakes * | | | | | | | |------------->
<-------------- | | |__| |__| | | Release brakes *
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| | | |
| |___________| |
\|/ Less throttle
* Brakes are effective
only while on the ground.
Figure 2. Mouse Functions in Yoke Mode
Trim tab |
/ | \
\______ | _____/
/ | \ Longitudinal axis
/ | \ /
| | |/
| | /|
Right aileron Right flap | | / | Left flap Left aileron
____|___________|_________| |/ |______|______________|_____
//---------|---------------| | |----------------|---------\\
\__________________________| |\ |___________________________/ |
| | \ | |
| | \| Lateral axis
\ | /\
\__|__/ \ Vertical axis
<----------- Yaw ----------->
/|\ Roll or Bank 0/
| | | |
| =====| | |====
| | | |
/ | \
|| ||| ||
/|\ ______ / ||-- Rudder
| | ____/ \______________/ ||
| |/ /
| | | /
| | 0 0
Figure 3. Primary Flight Controls
Control position indicators are shown on the instrument panel (Reference
Figure 1, items 23, 24, 25) and follow the yoke movement.
Control York (or Stick)
Yoke rotation or stick right-left movement controls the ailerons and causes
the aircraft to roll. Yoke movements toward and away from the pilot or
stick forward and back movement controls the elevator and causes the plane
to pitch nose-up or nose-down.
Figure 4 shows the yoke's aileron control functions and effects.
Figure 5 shows the yoke's elevator control function and effects.
Practice using the yoke:
1. Boot up FS2 if it's not already running.
2. If a pointer is visible on the screen, press the mouse's right button
to go into yoke mode.
3. Move the mouse to the left and right (aileron bank left and right).
4. Notice the control indicator move to the left and right.
NOTE: The aileron and elevator only have an effect while flying. They
cause no aircraft response while the aircraft is stationary on the ground.
The keypad keys  and [.] control the rudder. In auto-coordinated flight
mode (the mode the simulator comes up in), the rudder and ailerons are
linked. Adjusting one also adjusts the other. This allows you to fly
without using the rudder under mouse-only control. Figure 6 shows rudder
The throttle applies power. Dragging the mouse forward and backward with
the left button held down while in yoke mode controls throttle. Dragging
forward increases power, and dragging backward decreases it.
The throttle position indicator shows the throttle setting. Figure 7 shows
throttle control functions.
Apply brakes to slow the aircraft while on the ground by dragging the mouse
to the left with the left button pressed down. Release brakes by dragging
right. A "BRAKES" indicator will appear on the 3D screen near the center
orientation marker when brakes are applied. These are wheel brakes only
and have no effect in the air. Brakes are automatically released while in
the air to avoid landing with the brakes on. Figure 7 shows brake control
KEYBOARD PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROLS
The keypad can be used for primary flight controls instead of the mouse.
Figures 4 through 7 show the appropriate keys for yoke, rudder, throttle
and brake functions.
When flying using keyboard control, remember the keypad keys by position
rather than by number. The control keys are arranged in a "control
diamond" pattern that corresponds to stick or yoke movement (left key for
left roll, right key for right roll, etc.).
Keyboard Yoke and Rudder
The aileron, elevators, and rudder keys all adjust control surfaces a small
amount for each keypress. Watch the control position indicators on the
instrument panel to know the control position. Holding keys down for a
long time will result in multiple keypresses.
The  key centers the aileron and rudder only. The elevators are not
centered by this key.
The elevator often requires large control movements, but at other times
requires very small movements. Making the elevator sensitive enough to
perform small movements would have required more than 50 notches of
elevator to handle the large control movements. Instead, a
"micro-adjustable" elevator is used.
Rapid elevator keypresses cause the elevator to move in large steps (about
30 notches from full up to full down). Single keypresses or sequences of
keypresses at intervals greater than half a second result in 1/8 scale
"micro-movements" (240 notches from full up to full down). The indicator
has only 30 positions, so micro-movements only show on the indicator once
every eight keypresses.
Figure 4. Aileron Controls and Effects
Figure 5. Elevator Controls and Effects
Figure 6. Rudder Controls and Effects
Figure 7. Throttle and Brake Controls
Micro adjustments are good for making small adjustments (when establishing
straight and level flight for example), and large movements are useful when
large changes are required.
Keyboard Rudder, Brakes and Throttle
These controls are also grouped on the keyboard for complete primary
control. Figures 6 and 7 show these controls. Each brake keypress reduces
your speed by a few knots while on the ground.
JOYSTICK PRIMARY FLIGHT CONTROLS
The joystick can be used instead of the control yoke keys. To use a
joystick instead of the control yoke, set up the joystick as described in
the JOYSTICK SETUP section of this manual.
Figures 4 and 5 show joystick movement effects. Right and left stick
movement controls ailerons, and forward and backward movement controls
elevator. The control functions and directions correspond exactly to those
used in a real "stick-controlled" aircraft. Right stick movement causes
right roll, and backward movement "pulls the nose up." To center your
ailerons, press the joystick button and push the stick to the left or to
The joystick can also be used for throttle control. Press the joystick
button and move the stick forward or back to adjust your throttle when
flying with the joystick.
It is most convenient to use the keypad controls for rudder and brakes in
this flight mode.
Flight Simulator II has a sophisticated viewing system that gives you a
wide range of views from the aircraft as well as views of your aircraft as
you fly. There are four visual view modes: cockpit, tower, track, and
spot. The view mode determines your viewing point. There are also view
direction controls, zoom, and an optional second three-dimensional window.
A separate map display is available.
VIEW MODE SELECTION
The [S], [D], [X], [C] keyboard group (see Figure 8d) selects view mode.
The VIEW menu can also be used to select view mode (see Figure 8a):
COCKPIT: In this mode you are looking out of the aircraft's windshield.
TOWER: You are looking out from a stationary control tower. This mode
automatically tracks your movements, keeping you in view.
TRACK: In control tower mode it is easy to fly out of range of the control
tower and disappear into the distance. When track mode is selected, the
tower "chases" you if you get too far away. It tracks your motion. The
tower always stays on the ground, and it stops chasing you if you get
within the tracking distance (such as when you turn toward it to do a
fly-by). The tracking distance is menu-adjustable.
SPOT: This mode is the view from a spotting aircraft flying next to you (or
behind, below, or in front of you). You get to choose where the spotter
aircraft is placed and how far from you it will fly using the SET SPOT
PLANE menu. You may also select whether the spot plane will constantly
maintain its spot position (FAST UPDATE on the SET SPOT PLANE menu) or will
chase you (SLOW UPDATE).
The title bar above the 3D display tells what view mode the 3D window is
in. When looking straight ahead in cockpit mode, no title appears above
the 3D window. This gives the best possible view and projection rate.
In all modes you have a zoom control. You can zoom in or out (change your
field of view) by pressing keyboard keys [+] or [-] for fine zoom control
or [F9] or [F10] for coarse zoom control. You can also change zoom factor
using the zoom menu (see Figure 8c). When landing, taking off, and doing
aerobatics, make sure the zoom control is on 1X (press [Backspace]). View
distortion in wide-angle and telephoto views can adversely affect your
sense of direction and movement. The "ZOOM" digits on the lower right side
of the control panel show the zoom factor.
COCKPIT VIEW DIRECTION CONTROL
In cockpit mode you can view from 9 different directions. Figure 8 shows
view directions and how to select them using menu options and keyboard
control. It is best to use keyboard control to select viewing direction.
You will be using it a lot, and having to go in and out of cursor mode to
select from menus reduces the ability to just casually "look around". Just
remember that the view control keys are centered around the [G] key.
You can make fine adjustments to your view direction using the cursor keys
located to the right of the main keyboard. The [cursor left] and [cursor
right] keys pan left and right. The [cursor up] and [cursor down] keys pan
downward and upward respectively. Changing view direction (by pressing
[Y], for example) after making a fine view adjustment will cancel the
horizontal adjustment, but will not affect the vertical adjustment. Press
the [Del] key to cancel both horizontal and vertical adjustments.
The VIEW DIRECTION item on the VIEW menu activates a dialog box that is
used to select view direction (see Figure 8b).
SET SPOT PLANE
Track and spot distances are adjusted by selecting the menu item SET SPOT
PLANE. This option activates the dialog box shown in Figure 9. Set the
SPOT DIRECTION (where you want the spotter aircraft to be with relation to
your plane) by clicking one of the four view direction boxes.
Figure 8. View Controls
Figure 9. Set Spot Plane Menu
Spot distance is adjusted by clicking on the UP or DOWN adjustment arrows
next to the SPOT DISTANCE readout. This will determine how far from you
the spotter aircraft will fly. The selected distance appears next to the
SPOT ALTITUDE is the difference in altitude between the spotter pilot and
yourself. Positive values place the spotter at a higher altitude than your
plane. Negative values place the spotter below you. The spotter can never
go below ground, and some dramatic landing views can be generated by
placing the spotter slightly below and to the side of you.
The spot plane positions itself in the direction and at the distance shown
on the SET SPOT PLANE menu (150 feet off your left wing and 20 feet above
you, for example). The spot plane's position can change in undesirable
ways when doing aerobatics. When you bank the plane steeply, and roll
upside down, suddenly the wing that was pointing east points west. The
spotter plane should then switch to the other side if it is to match the
SET SPOT PLANE diagram. The spot plane jumping from side to side makes it
hard to watch yourself do aerobatics. A similar undesirable transition
happens when you do a loop (pitch upward then go all the way over).
There are two menu items that tell the spot plane how to act during these
transitions. You can adjust them for the kinds of visual special effects
you want. Preference is settable to LOOP or ROLL. In "roll preference"
mode the spot plane flies relative to your heading, not your wingtip. When
you roll, your heading remains the same, and the spot plane will track you
from one side, letting you watch the complete roll. Loops will still cause
a problem though, because as you go "over the top" your heading abruptly
changes by 180 degrees. To watch yourself do loops, choose "loop
preference". The spot plane will track based on your wingtip direction
(which doesn't change during a loop).
In ROLL or LOOP preference modes, there are times when the spot plane has
to switch which side of you it's on. Rather than changing sides abruptly,
the spot plane gradually moves itself to the other side, keeping you in
view all the while. Think of the spot plane as a fellow pilot filming you
with a movie camera. The spot plane must fly its way to the other side.
The crossover creates dramatic visual effects. You can set the cross-over
time by setting TRANSITION on the spot plane menu to SLOW or FAST.
SECOND THREE DIMENSIONAL WINDOW
You can fly with two 3D window views at once. The second 3D window is
activated by pressing the [F2] key or selecting the VIEW menu item SECOND
3D. The window will appear, and you can adjust its size using its SIZE
The second window has all the capabilities of the main window. After
pressing [F2] all zoom and view control keypresses will affect the second
3D window. (In order to change zoom or view control in the first 3D window
when more than one 3D window is active, press [F1].) If more than one 3D
window is visible, the one that will be affected by keypresses is outlined
in black. The others are outlined in white.
On VIEW DIRECTION and SET SPOT PLANE menus, click on control boxes at the
bottom of the screen to indicate which window you are adjusting. The
dialog boxes always come up with the primary 3D window selected.
Turn the second 3D window off by pressing the [F2] key twice in a row or by
clicking on its CLOSE box.
You can achieve some interesting effects using two 3D windows, but the
frame rate will slow down because two images must be projected. To improve
speed, keep the second 3D window small, and turn it off when you don't need
THREE DIMENSIONAL WINDOW ON/OFF
The VIEW menu has options to turn the primary and secondary 3D windows on
and off (MAIN 3D and SECOND 3D). A check mark next to the menu items
indicate which windows are on and off. If you turn the primary 3D window
off, you must click on the mouse icon to put the mouse into yoke mode
because you can't double click on the nonexistent 3D window.
The [F1] and [F2] keys can also be used to turn the first and second 3D
windows on and off. Press the appropriate key once to turn the window on,
and twice rapidly to turn it off.
The map display allows you to look at a map of the area over which you are
flying. You can also zoom in and out and see large or small areas. This
is useful in navigation and taxiing around airports. Although this feature
is part of the navigation system and is described thoroughly in the
NAVIGATION section, it is appropriate to get to know how to use it at this
time because it is used a lot when flying.
The map display is placed next to the 3D display. The window size is
adjustable using the SIZE box, and the display can be dragged around the
screen using its title bar.
To turn the map on, press the [F3] key. The [+] and [-] keys are used for
fine zooming in and out. The [F9] and [F10] keys are used for coarse
zooming. The [Backspace] key sets a zoom factor of 1X. After pressing
[F3], all zoom keypresses will affect the map display until it is turned
off or one of the 3D windows is selected by pressing [F1] or [F2]. When
the map display is selected for zoom control, it will be outlined in black
rather than white. You can also select MAP DISPLAY and MAP ZOOM from the
NAV menu under mouse control. Further uses of the map display are
presented in the NAVIGATION section of this manual.
Turn the map off by pressing the [F3] key twice in a row, or by clicking
the MAP DISPLAY option on the NAV menu.
Aspect ratio refers to the relationship between the width and height of a
window. The aspect ratio of what is shown in 3D windows can either be
locked to a constant aspect ratio, or can be dependent upon the actual
aspect ratio of the 3D window. If aspect ratio is locked, the aspect ratio
of the field of view is locked to the aspect ratio of the 3D window, so as
the window width is increased, more scenery will be visible. If aspect
ratio is not locked, the field of view will remain a constant width and
objects may look very distorted if the window is either very short or very
wide. Keep the aspect ratio locked for normal flight. Unlock it if you
want to see some interesting special effects.
ASPECT RATIO LOCK is selectable under the FILE menu.
SECONDARY AIRCRAFT CONTROLS
The secondary controls are associated with the control icons and radios at
the right side of the instrument panel. They are used to navigate, control
the engine, and control the simulator itself. Reference Figure 1 shows the
position of many of these controls on the panel, and the rest are available
through the menu bar. A description of how to use these follows. If this is
your first flight, you may want to return to this section later.
Flaps are movable panels on the inboard trailing edges of the wings. They
are hinged so they can be extended downward into the flow of air beneath
the wings to increase lift (upward force) and drag (rearward pull). Their
primary purpose is to permit a slower airspeed and steeper angle of descent
during a landing approach. They can also be used to shorten takeoff
distance or decrease stall speed on landing approach.
The flap position indicator is shown in Figure 10a. Flaps can be lowered to
the 10-, 20-, 30-, and 40-degree positions by clicking on the control boxes
next to the flap indicator, or by pressing the [ key to raise and the ] key
to lower the flaps. The keys to press are shown next to the arrow that
shows flap movement direction on the "FLAPS" icon.
The control yoke is directly connected to the airfoils it controls.
Different flight altitudes put different pressures on the airfoils. These
variations also change the pressure on the yoke. The pilot must counteract
these forces to keep the airfoils in their proper positions. Applying
steady pressure on the yoke for hours would be fatiguing. Trim is used to
counteract these forces and relieve the pilot from applying constant
pressure on the yoke.
Flight Simulator II provides elevator trim controls. The [(] and [)] keys
(on the keyboard, not the keypad area) let you adjust nose-up and nose-down
trim. The trim only has an effect when ELEVATOR TRIM is selected in
advanced flight modes. When this option is in effect, the elevators will
tend to drift toward a certain position that is a function of aerodynamic
effects and the elevator trim setting. Constant control movements (which
correspond to constant pressure in a real aircraft) are needed to keep the
pitch from drifting. When elevator trim is not selected while in easy
flight modes, you can ignore the elevator trim setting. The elevator trim
indicator is shown in Figure 10b.
The [I] key (I is for Ice) is the carburetor heat toggle switch. The
"CARB HEAT" indicator on the instrument panel shows whether carburetor heat
is on or off (see Figure 10c). You can also click on the carburetor heat
control box area using the mouse.
Carburetor heat is used to prevent icing or to clear ice that has already
formed in the carburetor. Apply carburetor heat for a few seconds on
landing approach to avoid ice-caused engine failure.
Magneto Switch and Mixture Full Lean Control
The "MAGS" icon control boxes and keyboard keys [ 1 ] and  act as the
magneto switch. The magneto switch is similar to an ignition switch on a
car. You can turn it to the right and left through a series of positions:
OFF magnetos off
LFT left magneto on
RGT right magneto on
BOTH both magnetos on
START start engine
LEAN mixture full lean (engine off)
The magneto is the aircraft's ignition system. Airplanes have two
independent ignition systems for safety (a LEFT and RIGHT system). The
mixture lean control is not part of the magneto switch on a real aircraft,
but was integrated with this control because you turn an aircraft engine
off by setting the carburetor mixture to full lean rather than by turning
the ignition switch off.
The magneto controls only have an effect when the ENGINE option is selected
in advanced flight modes. In easy flight modes, you can ignore the
magnetos. The magneto indicator is shown in Figure 10d.
Figure 10. Secondary Control Indicators
The [L] key, or the control box area (see Figure 10e) under the "LIGHTS"
icon, is used to turn on the running and instrument lights. Running lights
are lights or. the tips of each wing - red on the pilot's left, green on
the right - that help others identify your heading. Instrument panel lights
illuminate individual instruments on the instrument panel, so you can see
them at night. You must turn on the running and instrument panel lights for
night flight. It's not advisable to fly with your lights on during the day.
If you do, when night arrives you may find that a bulb on an important
instrument has burned out. Bulbs are replaced during refueling and service
The landing gear key [U] and the control box area under the "GEAR" icon
(shown in Figure 10f) raise and lower the landing gear. The "GEAR"
indicator on the panel shows the current status of the landing gear. You do
not have to raise the landing gear when flying. If you do raise it,
however, be sure to lower it on landing approach. Flying with the landing
gear down increases drag and slows you down.
VOR Navigation Radios (NAV 1 and NAV 2)
The NAV radio is an important navigational aid. It is used to tune in VOR
radio beacons so you can fly toward or away from them. Two NAV radios are
provided so you can tune in two VOR beacons at once. This is useful for
doing cross-checks of your position
You must set the NAV radio to the VOR frequency to receive the appropriate
signal. On a real aircraft, two knobs are used to set the frequency. One
sets the full megahertz frequencies (121, 122, 123, etc.), and the other
sets the fractional frequencies in 50 kHz increments (.00, .05, .10, etc.).
Many new radios are 720-channel models with 25 kHz separations, but none of
these intermediate frequencies are implemented on Flight Simulator II.
To set the NAV radio frequency, point to the number you want to change on
the radio on the instrument panel. Clicking the left mouse button changes
the frequency. Pointing to the right digit of the number raises the
frequency and pointing to the left digit lowers it. For example, to change
from 124 to 127, point to the digit 4 and click 3 times. To change 124 to
122, point to the digit 1 and click twice. Like real aircraft radios, the
numbers to the left of the decimal point (full MHz increments) and to the
right (50 kHz increments) are adjustable separately.
The NAV 1 radio is also used to tune in ILS localizer and glideslope. For
more information on instrument flying, see ADVANCED FLIGHT TECHNIQUES.
Omni-Bearing Indicator (OBI)
The OBI is used with the NAV radio to tune into VOR radio stations. VORs
are radio stations that transmit an omnidirectional synchronization signal
followed by a circular sweeping directional signal. The NAV receiver
decodes these signals to determine what angle or "radial" from the station
you are on. Radials can be thought of as directional beams radiating
outward from the VOR station like spokes of a wheel.
The OBI or VOR Indicator is a panel-mounted instrument that lets you
determine what VOR radial your plane is on. It also helps you fly along
radials toward or away from the VOR station. Two OBIs are provided. The top
OBI (Reference Figure 1, item 8) corresponds to the NAV1 radio. The bottom
OBI (item 9) corresponds to NAV2.
To set the OBI, point to the digits on the OBI indicator and click the left
side to decrease or right side to increase the setting.
Pointing and clicking the left and right sides of the adjustment knob will
also adjust the setting.
ADF Navigation Radio
The ADF (Automatic Direction Finder) is a system that lets you home in on
non-directional radio beacons. A three-digit frequency code can be set on
the ADF receiver. Pointing at the individual digits and clicking the mouse
sets the frequency.
There was not enough room on the instrument panel to place two Omni Bearing
Indicators and an ADF needle gauge, so you can select between the two and
have one or the other. Just click the control box at the upper right corner
of the ADF radio. The instrument in the lower OBI gauge position will
toggle between an ADF and VOR gauge.
Use the COM radio to tune into ATIS for weather, airport, and approach
information. The charts provided with this manual show the ATIS frequencies
for each airport where this service is available. The same procedure that
to set NAV radio frequencies is used to set the COM radio, except that you
point at the COM radio's digits.
On occasion, Air Traffic Control (ATC) will ask you to transmit a
four-digit code or "squawk". The message from ATC will appear in a message
window. To set the transponder, click the digit you want to change. The
four digits are adjusted separately.
To set the altimeter to the current barometric pressure (to calibrate it),
click the altimeter's adjustment knob. The altitude reading may change when
you do this. You should do this a couple times each hour in advanced
flight modes to ensure accurate altimeter readings.
Heading Indicator Calibration
Clicking the adjustment knob on the directional gyro sets the heading
indicator to the same reading as the magnetic compass. (The magnetic
compass does not drift with time as the heading indicAtor does, and it will
always show a correct reading when "settled down" after a turn.) Always be
sure the magnetic compass has settled down to avoid setting an incorrect
FLYING THE AIRCRAFT
The single-engine aircraft simulation attempts to accurately simulate the
actions and responses of a real aircraft. The Flight Simulator II aircraft
is closely patterned after a Cessna Turbo Skylane RG II (basically a 182
with retractable landing gear, turbocharged engine, and other performance
modifications). Some of the engine and prop control complexities are not
included in the simulation. The INFO menu presents this aircraft's
When the simulator is started, the aircraft is on the ground on runway 27
Right at Oakland International Airport in Oakland, California. The plane is
on runway 27 (indicating a 270-degree heading) facing west. The engine is
running and the plane is cleared for immediate takeoff. At this time,
navigation is secondary to flight control. This section explains how to get
into the air, maneuver the plane, and 1 and.
FLIGHT UNDER VFR CONDITIONS
On startup, the weather is fair. The sky is blue and the ground green
indicating a clear day without a cloud in the sky. No winds are present.
This is perfect weather for VFR (Visual Flight Rule) flying. A pilot flying
VFR (as opposed to flying IFR under Instrument Flight Rules) makes only
moderate use of the flight instruments and relies on ground references and
the visible horizon for aircraft navigation and orientation. The most
important instruments on your first VFR flight are the airspeed indicator
and altimeter. The aileron, rudder, elevator, and throttle
position-indicators are also important. Other instruments take on
importance later, but for the first flight, we will be concerned with what
is seen out the window and how it relates to altitude, airspeed, bank, and
GETTING FAMILIAR WITH THE AIRCRAFT
If this is your first time in the plane, it is time to get familiar with
it. Notice your altitude. Altitude is measured as feet above sea level, and
although you are sitting on the ground, the altimeter reads the airport
elevation of 7 feet above sea level. Oakland is near sea level so the
elevation effect is small, but at Denver
Stapleton International (a high elevation airport), the altitude would read
5333 feet while on the ground.
Notice the compass and gyro compass. They have similar but seldom identical
readings. The compass is read in degrees. A 270-degree reading corresponds
to the aircraft pointing west.
It is visually obvious when the aircraft is standing still. The airspeed
indicator is at its minimum position (readings don't start until 40 knots)
and everything in the 3D display is still. When the aircraft is still, you
can experiment with control movement. Turn the yoke full left then full
right (move the mouse to the left and right while in yoke mode). Also try
the elevator (mouse forward and back), rudder pedals (keypad  and [.]
keys) and centering control (keypad  key). Don't try the throttle yet.
Now is a good time to try the view selector. You are initially looking
straight ahead. To look to the right-front side, press the [Y] key. Figure
8 outlines the view selector keys. The view selector keys are positioned
around the [G] key. Try pressing the keys around the [G] key, and watch
the view direction change. You must be aware of the view direction you have
selected in order to keep from getting disoriented. It's a good idea to
always revert to front view before getting involved with other flying tasks
(adjusting NAV radios, setting up an approach to landing, etc.).
The map display is a valuable aid when on the ground. It can guide you
around airports and help with navigation in general. Select the map display
by pressing the [F3] key. Press the [+], [-], [F9], and [F10] keys to zoom
in and out. Press the [F3] key twice rapidly to turn off the map display.
The MAP DISPLAY and MAP ZOOM menu items may be used instead of the [F3],
[+], [-], [F9], and [F10] keys if you prefer. Click and hold on the zoom
boxes for large zoom changes.
Check the view of your plane from the control tower by pressing the [C]
key. Use the [F9] and [F10] keys to zoom in and out. Notice that the title
bar indicates TOWER view. Return to cockpit view by pressing the [X] key.
Notice that there is no title bar in cockpit view.
When on the ground you are, unfortunately, at the point of the flight where
the 3D out-the-window display is at its worst. This is due to the limited
vertical resolution of the screen. While on the ground, everything gets
cluttered on the horizon because most objects are viewed edge-on. It is
often hard to make out taxiways until you are close to them. Map view is
quite useful when taxiing.
Begin taxiing by applying a bit of throttle (switch to yoke mode if
necessary, then hold the left button down and move the mouse forward half
an inch). Notice the movement of the throttle indicator on the instrument
panel. In the 3D display, you will notice things start to move. The map
view shows a top-down view of where you are headed.
Try turning the plane from left to right (move the mouse left and right).
The rudder ground-steers the plane by controlling the aircraft's nose
wheel, and the plane can be steered like a car using the rudder pedals.
(NOTE: the plane is in auto-coordinated flight mode, so the aileron is
linked to the rudder. Normally, you would have to use the rudder pedals to
ground-steer). If the throttle is cut, the plane will eventually roll to a
stop. If you require a quicker stop, use the brakes (hold the left button
down and move the mouse to the left). You must be moving to turn the
airplane. Practice taxiing around the airport to get an idea of what
low-level scenery looks like.
Once you are familiar with taxiing, it is time to take off, but first you
must do your pre-takeoff check. Go to the end of the runway, point down the
runway, and line the plane up with the center line. Reduce throttle to zero
and coast to a stop (use the brakes when necessary). Now, go through this
Pre-Takeoff Check List
1 . Check for proper elevator operation. Move the elevator up and down and
2. Check the rudder and ailerons in the same way. Center them.
3. Check the engine gauges. Make sure that the oil pressure and temperature
are correct and that you have plenty of fuel. Check the heading
indicator against the magnetic compass and set it if necessary (click
the heading indicator knob).
NOTE: A checklist used in a real aircraft has many more steps than this
one. It's hard to remember all the steps for safe startups, takeoffs, and
landings. The aircraft manufacturer provides many check lists with the
aircraft, and it's good to get into the habit of always using them.
It may be a good idea to read the following sections on climbs, glides, and
turns before takeoff, but because this is a simulator, you may Just take
off now and cross those bridges as you come to them. (Use the pause [P] key
any time you need to stop and read the manual. )
If you are ready, here goes. Get ready to steer the plane as it rolls down
the runway. Small adjustments in steering are preferable to wild
zig-zagging. Now - FULL THROTTLE. Keep the plane on the runway. You should
be looking out the front windshield. Keep half an eye on the airspeed
indicator. It will start to rise. When you reach 48 to 53 knots you can
begin your rotation (the point where you start to pull back the yoke and
raise the nose to put the plane in its climb attitude to get off the
ground). About two notches of nose up (elevator up, pull back on the yoke)
is about right. You will notice the runway drop away as you lift off, and
the vertical velocity indicator start to show a positive reading. You are
The FS2 has the stability of a real aircraft when climbing. It essentially
climbs by itself without the need for constant adjustments. After takeoff
with full throttle and a notch or two of up elevator the plane should be in
a steady climb.
When climbing, you can increase your rate of climb by increasing the
throttle setting (assuming you you are not at full throttle already) while
holding a constant airspeed with the elevator. If you increase the throttle
raising the nose, your airspeed listed or your climb rate increases. By
raising the elevator, you convert airspeed into vertical velocity.
The relationship between speed, vertical velocity, elevator and throttle is
complex. Practice flights will get you familiar with the characteristics.
Non-pilots are cautioned against trying to attain an increased or decreased
climb rate by merely pulling back or pushing in the yoke without adjusting
throttle appropriately to keep airspeed steady. Raising the elevator alone
will indeed increase your climb rate for a few seconds, but soon your
airspeed will drop as you lose momentum and you will either stall or drop
to a dangerously low airspeed, Down elevator alone will put you into a
STRAIGHT AND LEVEL, CONSTANT-ALTITUDE FLIGHT
Again, the FS2 acts as a real aircraft when in straight and level flight.
The most common problem in holding a constant altitude is slowly drifting
from your desired altitude by getting careless and not checking the
altimeter once in a while.
The transition from climb or glide to straight and level flight should be
gradual. Use elevator and throttle to gradually get desired speed with no
climb or drop. Don't chase the vertical velocity indicator. This can get
you into trouble. After making small corrections using the altimeter and
airspeed indicator as guides, you will find that your vertical velocity
settles down nicely to near zero.
GLIDES AND DESCENTS
Glides and descents are used to reduce altitude with little or no engine
power. Proper glide technique is essential for performing landing
In a climb, you increase throttle and raise the elevator to increase
altitude, so it seems logical that you would want to lower the elevator and
decrease throttle for a glide. This is not the proper procedure. By
decreasing throttle, the plane naturally tends to drop its nose too far.
Airspeed will start to rise if you decrease throttle and hold a straight
and level elevator position (or lower the elevator) and decrease throttle.
Again, your elevator should be used to hold your airspeed
constant at the desired glide speed. A bit of back pressure on the yoke (up
elevator) should be used to keep the nose from dropping.
Judging how much up elevator to use takes experience. You have to learn to
watch the world outside when you decrease throttle. Get to know your pitch
attitudes in glides.
To practice glides, go up to five or six thousand feet, get straight and
level, cut throttle to zero, and see what happens. If your airspeed gets
dangerously high (over 140 knots or so) give a notch of up elevator. Raise
the nose to get out of the dive you are in.
Flaps are useful during descents. Lowering the flaps provides extra lift
and increases drag. You can increase your glide angle using flaps, which is
useful if you are too high. Flaps also decrease stall speed, which also is
desirable while making an approach and landing. Click on the flap position
boxes in the "FLAPS" icon on the instrument panel to apply flaps as needed.
The FS2 in self-coordinated flight mode automatically links ailerons and
rudder thereby making turns simpler than in most real aircraft. The thing
to remember about turns is that banking causes the turn. The aileron/rudder
controls cause the plane to go into a bank.
Try a turn. Get into straight and level flight. Give a little left aileron.
You will start to bank. Wait until the horizon appears to be banked 10 to
20 degrees. Now center the rudder/aileron. You are now in a turn. You will
remain in the turn until you "roll-out" of it. The FS2 is positively stable
and wing dihedral effects are considered, so the plane will gradually
straighten itself out if a roll-out isn't manually performed.
Roll-out timing is important. If you want to get on a heading of 180
degrees, you must start to roll out of the turn (by giving right
aileron/rudder) about 10 degrees before 180 degrees is reached. It takes
time to get level again and while in the process of leveling off you are
A 10- or 20-degree bank is a shallow turn. After the turn, look at your
altimeter. You may have lost a bit of altitude. In turns, planes tend to
lose altitude, and the
steeper the bank, the worse it gets. A bit of up elevator while in a turn
solves this problem.
The hardest aspect of flying is landing safely and correctly. The idea of
landing is to fly the plane a foot or two above the runway's surface and
slow down until the plane stalls and stops flying. As the plane slows down,
the nose will want to drop and the plane will try to fly itself onto the
ground, but you must compensate with the elevator to keep the plane at the
one or two-foot level until it stalls. If you fly the plane onto the ground
above stall speed, it may bounce.
As you pull back the yoke, the plane will take a higher and higher nose-up
attitude. This is good. When you finally touch down, your elevator will be
nearly all the way up.
You will know when you touch the ground. The scenery outside will level off
and there will be an appropriate sound.
The process of getting to level flight above and aligned with the runway
takes some practice. Steep glides are preferred as you come in for a
landing. An engine failure while in a steep glide will have little effect
on where you land whereas an engine failure on a long, shallow, power glide
at treetop level will drop you into the field half a mile from the airport.
The idea is to align yourself with the runway and glide toward it in a
steep glide at approach speed (about 75 knots indicated airspeed and 66
knots with flaps extended on final approach). You must then break the glide
and transition into straight and level, power-off flight a few feet above
the runway. This transition is known as the "flare".
You will use aileron and rudder to align yourself with the runway as you
come in for a landing, but make sure that the aircraft and rudder are
straight when you touch down. If they are not, ground steering will whip
you off the runway because your wheels aren't aligned to make the plane go
straight. An abrupt turning of the plane on the ground is known as a
"ground-loop", and could severely damage a real aircraft.
Once on the ground, you can use brakes to bleed off extra speed and come to
a stop. You will then be ready for your next flight. You may wish to taxi
to the ramp area to top off the tanks and turn around.
Before taking off again, make sure to do the pre-takeoff check. You will
usually find that you have to center the elevator which is nearly all the
way up from the last landing. Taking off with full up elevator and full
throttle can be disastrous.
AIRCRAFT REFUELING AND SERVICING
All the airports (except for the very small, single-runway grass strips)
have fuel and servicing facilities. Fuel and servicing areas are marked by
rectangles with "F"s inside them. These areas are found at the airports'
ramp area. To refuel and have your aircraft serviced, come to a full stop
within one of these areas.
FLYING THE BUSINESS JET
The business jet simulation allows you to fly up to 45,000 feet at speeds
up to 445 knots (Mach .8). This mode is not as realistic as the single
engine prop aircraft, but it is a lot of fun and lets you go places and
view scenery very quickly.
The performance characteristics of this simulation closely match those or a
Gates Learjet 25g twin turbojet aircraft.
The INFO menu gives the performance specifications. The major lack of
realism is in the area of flight instruments and controls.
A Learjet has two engines and thus two sets of engine instruments. Because
they are turbojet engines, their instruments are different than those of a
piston engine. Instead of two sets of the proper temperature, exhaust
pressure ratio (EPR), and fuel-flow gauges, the single engine prop's
instruments are used.
The tachometer is recalibrated to show percent of full RPM rather than
The airspeed indicator is recalibrated to read speeds of up to Mach 1 (the
speed of sound, 740 mph at sea level). The airspeed indicator reads out the
true speed rather than traditional airspeed based on airflow. Indicated
airspeed corresponds fairly well to true airspeed on slow aircraft, but on
a jet at 45,000 feet at near the speed of sound, indicated airspeed is
usually just a few hundred knots due to the low air density. The the
airspeed indicator gives a better indication of how fast you are really
The rest of the instruments are the same as in the prop aircraft mode.
The controls are basically the same as on the prop aircraft. The engines
responds more slowly to throttle input because the jet engines need time to
"spool up" to speed.
The aileron and rudder sensitivity is a bit higher, and the aileron can
sometimes "get away" from you if the plane gets out of control. This is
indicated by the aileron indicator moving wildly with no mouse control.
There are three things to remember when flying the business jet: fly it
with a light touch, remember that your aircraft is heavy and has a lot of
inertia, and most importantly, don't exceed the Mach maximum operating
The Learjet 25g has a maximum takeoff weight of 16,300 pounds (as compared
to the Cessna Turbo RG II's 3100 pounds). Once an aircraft that is this
heavy is on a given course and speed, it takes a lot of effort to slow it
down or change its direction of flight. This is particularly true on
landings. The best way to land the aircraft is to reach the runway numbers
with just the proper speed and rate of sink. If you come in too fast you
will float above the runway as the plane bleeds off speed. If your rate of
sink is too high, you will hit the runway hard. If your sink rate is too
high, extra rotation as you near the runway won't help - it will just
change the attitude you are in when you smash into the runway.
The Learjet is a very streamlined plane, and its two General Electric
Ci61O-8A turbojets are very powerful engines. The biggest problem you will
run into in this plane is too much speed. The Mach maximum operating speed
is Mach .82 and is indicated on the airspeed indicator. If you exceed it,
the overspeed warning system is activated. If you don't take action and
reduce power, climb, or use spoilers (flaps) to get the speed down, the
"stick puller" pulls up the nose a bit to slow the plane down.
The overspeed dangers can not be over-emphasized. This plane is so powerful
that you can easily exceed Mmo in level flight with full throttle. If you
let the plane get too much overspeed, supersonic shock waves travel back on
the wings until they reach the ailerons. Since the aircraft uses mechanical
linkage controls, the yoke (as shown by the aileron indicator) begins to
buzz and shake wildly from side to side. At this stage you are out of
Don't be tempted to activate the spoilers to slow down if you are overspeed
and out of control. They will just drop the nose and make you go faster,
putting you in a worse situation yet. Recover by pulling the power off and
gently pulling back on the yoke. Too much yoke pressure will increase the
moving the shock wave back and making the controls shake even more
violently. If all else fails, lower the landing gear. The Learjet is able
to withstand the forces of gear down at high speed with only minor gear
door damage. The gear adds drag and helps stabilize the plane. It should
slow you enough to regain control and fly back to the airport to have your
plane inspected and repaired if necessary.
ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL controls flight factors that are external to the
aircraft. These include seasons, time of day, clouds, wind, and turbulence.
Figure 11 shows the menu bar and ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL menu. To adjust
environmental factors, point to the menu bar and select the appropriate
option on the menu.
The WINTER, SPRING, SUMMER, and FALL menu items can be selected to specify
the season. Only one is active at a time, and the check mark to the left
shows the current season. Season sets weather conditions that are typical
of the specified season.
Each season presents unique flying problems. Winter brings icy runways and
startup problems. Summer brings hot, humid days that increase density
altitude and reduce lift. Each situation requires different skills.
SETTING TIME OF DAY
Set the time of day by clicking the digits on the "TIME" clock on the
instrument panel (see Figure 1ld).
The FS2 operates in three distinct visual flight periods: day, dusk/dawn,
and night. The visual flight period is selected automatically based on the
time of day. The clock is a 24-hour clock to allow consideration of AM and
PM times. The visual mode switch-over transition times are:
Night Dawn Day Dusk
to to to to
Season Dawn Day Dusk Night
WINTER 7:00 7:30 17:00 17:30
SPRING 6:00 6:30 19:00 19:30
SUMMER 5:00 5:30 21:00 21:30
FALL 6:00 6:30 19:00 19:30
SETTING CLOUD LEVELS
Selecting CLOUDS on the ENVIRO menu will activate the dialog box for cloud
adjustment show in Figure 1 lb. There are two setable cloud layers, and
Set the top two cloud levels by clicking on the control box next to the
words TOPS and BASE, and enter the cloud digits using the keyboard.
The top two cloud layers' altitudes are measured in feet above sea level
(MSL). The gauge to the left of the Cloud icons shows the cloud altitudes.
Set the depth of the ground fog by clicking on the DEPTH control box and
entering the digits. Ground fog always starts on the ground, and its depth
is measured in feet above ground level ( AGL).
To eliminate cloud layers and ground fog, click on the control box next to
the LEVEL marker.
To exit the CLOUDS dialog box, click on the CLOSE box in the upper left
corner of the window.
SETTING WIND AND TURBULENCE
Selecting WINDS on the ENVIRO menu will activate the dialog box for wind
adjustment shown in Figure 11c. There are three setable wind levels, and a
Figure 11. Environmental Controls
To enter digits in the WINDS menu, click on the desired control box and
type in the digits followed by [Return]. You may also use the cursor keys
to move between items.
You can set surface wind to simulate realistic takeoff conditions by
setting surface wind velocity (SPEED), direction (DIR), and DEPTH. Surface
winds are encountered from ground level up to the altitude above ground
level specified as DEPTH. Surface wind direction is specified as magnetic
Three levels of "winds aloft" are available. Set the values of BOT (bottom,
the altitude at which the winds begin), TOP (the altitude at which the
winds cease), DIR (direction), and SPEED. Wind direction for winds aloft is
true direction (not magnetic), and altitude is specified a feet above sea
Turbulence (TURB) has a range of 0 to 10. Zero indicates smooth air, while
ten is the most severe turbulence setting.
To exit the WINDS dialog box, click on the window's CLOSE box.
SIMULATION CONTROL controls flight factors that are internal to the
aircraft and the Flight Simulator II system. These include realism
adjustments, communication rate, reliability, pause, and other internal
Figure 12 shows the menu bar and SIMULATION CONTROL menu. To adjust
simulation factors, point to the menu bar and select the appropriate option
on the menu.
Sound can be toggled on and off by clicking SOUND on the menu. The check
beside SOUND indicates that the sound is on. It is more convenient to use
the [Tab] key to turn sound on and off.
PAUSE AND CURSOR PAUSE
You can pause and un-pause the simulation by clicking on PAUSE. A check
next to PAUSE indicates that the simulation is paused. The [P] key can also
be used to pause, and is usually more convenient.
The PAUSE IN CURSOR mode can be set by clicking on the menu. A check next
to the menu item indicates that this mode is active. When in PAUSE IN
CURSOR mode, the simulation will automatically pause whenever you put the
mouse into cursor mode. The simulation will only fly along when the mouse
is in yoke mode. This gives you more time to select menus and choose from
menus because you don't have to worry about aircraft control while making
selections. This feature, however, detracts from the real-time realism of
the simulation, so you can leave it turned off if you prefer.
This feature links and unlinks ailerons and rudder. When a check appears
next to AUTO COORD, the rudder and aileron are linked. Flying in
uncoordinated mode (no check next to AUTO-COORD) requires that you use the
rudder pedals (the  and [.] keypad keys) as well as the ailerons to fly.
This is a more difficult mode to fly in, but it allows you to perform
maneuvers that are not possible while in coordinated modes. See the
ADVANCED FLIGHT TECHNIQUES section for details on how to perform these
When menu item RELIABILITY is selected, the dialog box shown in Figure
12b appears. The sliding pointer can be dragged using the mouse to the
desired aircraft reliability setting. The value represents the probability
of the plane running reliably. A value of 100 ensures a totally reliable
aircraft, while a value - of zero presents frequent problems (instrument
failures, engine problems, fuel system problems, etc.)
When menu item REALISM is selected, the dialog box shown in Figure 12c
appears. You can turn the effects you desire on and off by clicking on the
a control boxes next to the items. Turning on these reality effects add
more complexity to the simulation and make it harder to fly.
Refers to the need to use the magneto switch to start the airplane.
Fast Throttle Gives the engine a chance of bogging down and dying if you
increase your throttle too quickly.
Activates the elevator trim control and causes the elevator position to
drift toward a setting that is determined by the aerodynamic conditions and
Figure 12. Simulation Controls
elevator trim setting. You constantly have to adjust the elevators unless
you trim the plane properly when this effect is set.
Makes your panel go blank at night unless you turn your lights on.
Gyro and Barom Drift
Causes the selected instrument to drift as time goes by. You should get
into the habit of occasionally adjusting these instruments while in flight,
and this effect creates bad consequences if you don't.
Enables aircraft crash detection. If crash detection is turned off, the
plane will "bounce" when it hits the ground.
Causes lights to occasionally burn out. Flying with your lights on during
the day can cause this to happen.
Clicking on PARTIAL PANEL presents a menu with a list of flight instruments
with control boxes next to them. Clicking on the control boxes blanks the
selected instruments so you can fly with limited instrumentation (flying
"partial panel" ). It is good flight training to fly without key
instruments and by visual references only. It gives you an idea of what to
expect if you have an instrument failure.
Selecting this item presents a dialog box that contains five sliding
sensitivity controls that you can adjust with the cursor. Aileron,
elevator, throttle, and brake sensitivity can be adjusted. The markings
next to the sliding indicators indicate how many inches the mouse must move
to deflect the controls through their entire range.
The fifth slider controls NULL ZONE size. In order to keep the plane from
slowly drifting into a bank if the ailerons are positioned the slightest
bit off-center, a null zone in the center of control movement is provided.
As long as the mouse is in this zone, the ailerons are centered. Too wide a
null zone gives the ailerons a sloppy feel, while too small a zone makes it
too easy to unintentionally start banking. Adjust this to the balance
between these two conditions you like the best.
This section describes the Flight Simulator II "world" and how to get
around in it. First the map display, a vital tool in navigation is
described. Then the organization of the world and how to move quickly
around it without flying is discussed. Finally the autopilot, a valuable
navigational tool is covered.
MAP DISPLAY OPTIONS AND CONTROL
Pressing the [F3] key or clicking on MAP DISPLAY in the NAV menu (see
Figure 13) turns on a map of the area over which you are flying. This
window can be expanded and moved using its title bar and SIZE box. The
check mark next to MAP DISPLAY on the menu indicates the map on/off status.
Turn the map off by pressing [F3] twice sequentially or by clicking on the
MAP DISPLAY menu option.
You can zoom in on the map to look closely at airports (good for when
taxiing), or zoom out to look at large areas to see where you are. Press
the [F3] key followed by the [+] or [F9], [-] or [F10], and [Backspace]
keys for zoom-in, zoom-out, and IX display. Zoom control can also be
performed using the MAP ZOOM option on the NAV menu (see Figure 13). Press
the [F1] key to re-select the first 3D window.
The AIRCRAFT ORIENTATION and NORTH ORIENTATION items on the menu refer to
the map's rotated positioning. If AIRCRAFT ORIENTATION is selected, the map
will be rotated so the top center is in the direction you are flying. NORTH
ORIENTATION positions the map with north at the top of the screen. In both
cases, your aircraft's position is noted with an aircraft symbol at the
center of the screen.
THE "WORLD" AND WORLD NAVIGATION
The "world" in which you fly has a range of approximately 10,000 by 10,000
miles with a resolution of about one one-hundredth of an inch, and a center
coordinate (x=0, y=0) at 40 degrees latitude and 88 degrees 30 minutes
longitude (about 30 miles south-west of Champaign, Illinois). The range
covers the entire continental United States and extends well into Canada,
the Caribbean. Airports and other features were digitized directly from
aerial photographs or taxi charts when no photographs were available.
The world database is currently limited to about 120 airports in 5 general
areas (San Francisco, Seattle, Los Angeles, Boston/New York, and Chicago
and central Illinois). The database is not very extensive considering the
vast number of airports and topographic features in the United States and
Canada, but everything that's there is in its proper place. Systems are
provided to let you get from area to area quickly and easily. You could
actually fly between distant points (Seattle to Los Angeles for instance)
but it would take hours. In flight mode, flying this far is not possible
due to fuel supply limitations, and there are no airports between distant
points (at least not yet).
Charts 1-5 show the five general navigation areas.
GETTING AROUND IN THE WORLD
There are three ways to move around in the world: flying, slewing, and
setting your coordinates manually.
This method is fine once you are in the general area you want to fly in.
In slew mode, you can move the plane freely and quickly in 3D space using
the mouse and and keyboard controls. You can change your heading, bank, and
pitch. You can instantaneously stop the plane in mid air and look around.
Enter slew mode by selecting SLEW on the NAV menu. Slewing can be fully
controlled from the keyboard. Some slew movement can be controlled by the
mouse. Moving the mouse forward and backward accelerates you forward and
backward, The more you move the mouse, the faster you will accelerate. Left
and right mouse movement change the direction you are pointing. You can
"steer" yourself as you move forward. Single-clicking the mouse stops all
slew motion, while double-clicking returns you to cursor mode.
Figure 13. Navigation Menu Options
To control slew movement from the keyboard, use the numeric keypad. The 
and  keys accelerate forward and backward. The  and  keys turn
left and right. The  key stops all slew movement.
The following keys control other slew directions:
Q increase altitude
A decrease altitude
( pitch nose up
) pitch nose down
[ left bank
] right bank
Z turn on/off NORTH and EAST digit readout
As you slew around, the values next to the NORTH and EAST parameters
change to reflect your new position. When you resume flight, you will
resume from the new north and east positions.
Exit slew mode by clicking on the SLEW item on the NAV menu. This will put
you back into flight mode. Once in flight mode, the aircraft will continue
doing what it was when you entered slew mode (flying, sitting on the
ground, etc.). If you were previously on the ground and you slewed to a
high altitude, exiting slew mode will cause the plane to fall out of the
sky until it gets going fast enough to glide. Pitch, bank, and heading set
during slew mode are transferred to flight mode. North, east, and altitude
positions set in slew mode are also transferred to flight mode. You can
slew to a new flight area and resume flight there.
The third and fastest way to get to a precise destination is to select the
POSITION SET item from the NAV menu and manually set your destination
coordinates. North, east, and altitude coordinates can be set by clicking
on the NORTH, EAST, or ALTITUDE box and typing in the desired value
followed by [Return]. You can move between items by using the [cursor up]
and [cursor down] keys.
North and East coordinates for many airports are shown on the navigation
charts. Altitudes are also shown, but it is more convenient to just enter
zero as the altitude. The simulator will automatically put you at field
elevation when you get to the airport.
Your position is not put into effect until you exit from the POSITION SET
The POSITION SET menu also lets you position the control tower view
location. NORTH, EAST, and ALTITUDE next to the menu line TOWER specify the
view location for tower views. Setting tower location does not place a
visible control tower in the scenery.
Flight Simulator II features five of the most commonly used navigational
aids: VOR (Very high frequency Omnidirectional Range), DME (Distance
Measuring Equipment), ADF (Automatic Direction Finder), and ILS (Instrument
Landing System) are available for day or night flight. Airport beacons are
provided at night.
VORs are radio stations that transmit an omnidirectional synchronization
signal followed by a circular sweeping directional signal. The NAV receiver
in the aircraft decodes these signals to determine what angle or what
"radial" from the station you are on. Radials can be thought of as
directional beams radiating outward from the VOR station like spokes of a
wheel (see Figure 1 4).
The Omni-Bearing Indicator or VOR Indicator is a panel-mounted instrument
(Reference Fig. 1, items 8 and 9) that lets you determine what VOR radial
your plane is currently on, and helps you fly up and down radials toward or
away from the VOR station.
The OBI consists of the following components (see Figure 14):
Course Deviation Indicator (CDI): A vertical needle that shows your
deviation from the selected radial.
Course Selector: This is the numeric value that appears at the top of the
OBI. This number shows what radial is selected.
Course Selector Knob or Omni-Bearing Selector: A knob that adjusts the
course selector. This is used to select the radial you want to fly on, or
to find what radial you are intercepting.
TO-FROM-OFF Indicator: This indicator shows whether the course selected in
the course selector will take the aircraft TO or FROM the station. OFF
indicates an out of range station or an abeam position (more than about 75
degrees away from the desired radial).
Here are a few important facts about VOR readings:
1. The VOR indicator only tells you what radial you are on. It says nothing
about the direction the aircraft is flying.
2. As you turn the OBS knob, the needle will center twice - once with the
TO flag showing, and once with the FROM flag showing.
3. When you adjust the OBS knob until the CDI needle centers, and the TO-
FROM flag indicates FROM, you can read the radial number on the course
selector (the top digits on the gauge)
4. When the needle is centered, the course selector shows the heading you
must fly to go TO or FROM the VOR station (based on the TO-FROM flag).
5. When flying toward or away from a station, the CDI needle will move to
the right of center if you are off course 0 the left of the radial. To
get back on course, change your heading a bit to he right and "fly
toward the needle".
6. On windy days, you will have to add!a correction factor to the course
selector heading to compensate for any crosswind that may tend to blow
you away from the radial.
7. You can use the TO or FROM needle centered position to fly to or from a
station, but if you fly from a station with a TO flag showing, the CDI
needle will be reverse-sensing (moving backwards if you get off course).
The best way to get a feel for VOR navigation is to go through a few
Flying Toward a Station
1. Select a VOR station on the map and tune the NAV1 receiver to the
station. Refer to Figure 1 5.
2. Adjust the OBS Omni-Bearing Select r (the knob on the upper VOR) until
the TO-FROM flag reads TO. If the OFF flag appears for all OBI settings,
you are either too far from the VOR station (station range is 30 to 100
miles) or the NAV 1 radio is improperly tuned.
Figure 14. VOR Station, Radials and Indicator
Figure 15. Flying to a VOR Station
3. Adjust the OBS until the CDI (vertical needle) is centered. Make sure
the TO flag is still showing.
4. The magnetic course to fly TO the station can now be read on the course
5. Take up the course indicated by the course selector. This will fly you
right to the VOR station.
Flying Away from a Station:
1 . Select a VOR station on the map and tune the NAV 1 receiver to the
station. Refer to Figure 16.
2. Adjust the OBS Omni-Bearing Selector (the knob on the upper VOR) until
the TO-FROM flag reads FROM.
3. Adjust the OBS until the CDI (vertical needle) is centered. Make sure
the FROM flag is still showing.
4. The magnetic course to fly FROM the station can now be read on the
5. Take up the course indicated by the course selector. This will fly you
away from the VOR station.
1. Select a VOR station that you want to fly past (TO on the selected
redial and FROM on a radial of about 180 degrees difference). Tune it
in, and fly TO it" Refer to Figure 17.
2. When you get very close to the station, the needle will become hard to
track. Radials are close together near the station they radiate from,
and even small course errors show large deviations.
3. Don't chase the needle or try to keep it centered. Instead, fly straight
on the heading indicated on the OBI until you get to the other side of
Figure 16. Flying from a VOR Station
Figure 17. VOR Passage
4. You very rarely will fly right over a VOR station. If the station is a
fair distance to the right or left of you (usually a mile or more), the
OFF flag will appear indicating an abeam position and the CDI needle
will pin itself to the side of the VOR gauge toward the station. You
then know on which side of the station you are passing.
5. Shortly after station passage, the FROM flag will appear. Assuming you
held your heading to the OBS course, the CDI needle will be nearly
centered. You are now flying FROM the station as intended.
Crosschecking Position :
1. Tune in two different stations on NAV 1 and NAV2.
2. Adjust the OBS knobs on VOR indicators 1 and 2 until the FROM flags are
showing on both. Read the radials you are on for both stations.
3. Look at your navigation chart and draw lines down the radials of the two
VORs. The intersection of the lines is your position (see Figure 18).
Flying from Station to Station:
1. Select two VOR stations that you want to fly between. You will be flying
FROM station A TO station B. Draw a line on the map between them (see
2. Tune in station A on the NAV 1 radio.
3. Adjust the OBS on the upper VOR until the course selector shows the
course you wish to fly from station A. This value can be read off the
VOR degree markings on the map.
4. Fly to the vicinity of station A and get on the radial and course Just
selected on the OBS. The FROM flag should appear.
5. Fly FROM the station as usual.
6. When you are far enough from the station that it is getting weak, or if
station B is in range, tune in station B on NAV1.
Figure 18. VOR Crosschecking
Figure 19. VOR Station-to-Station Navigation
7. Without adjusting the OBS, the TO flag should appear on VOR 1 and the
CDI needle should be very nearly centered. Keep flying the course shown
on the OBS TO station B.
DISTANCE MEASURING EQUIPMENT (DME) NAVIGATION
The DME receiver measures the distance in nautical miles to the VOR station
tuned on NAV1. This information lets you pinpoint your position by finding
your location on the tuned VOR's radial. The DME system usually has less
range than the VOR receiver, so you may have no DME operation yet be
receiving the VOR station. The DME digits are tuned on only when the
aircraft is within DME range of the VOR.
AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER (ADF)
The Automatic Direction Finder (ADF) is used with non-directional radio
beacons (NDBs), When the ADF receiver is tuned to an NDB, the needle on the
bearing indicator (see Figure 20) points to the station, and shows the
bearing relative to the nose of the aircraft (the relative bearing). The
magnetic bearing to the station can be calculated by adding the relative
bearing to the aircraft's magnetic heading.
Tracking and homing techniques can be used to fly to an NDB, but strong
crosswinds require special procedures to avoid spiraling toward or a way
from it* If you want to get some ADF tracking practice, turn on the ADF by
clicking on the small selection box next to the ADF markings on the ADF
radio. Turn up the winds using the WINDS menu, consult a flying handbook
for the proper techniques, and try tracking an NDB.
INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS)
ILS approaches are available at several airports. Consult your airport
chart or tune in your COM radio to the ATIS frequency to determine if ILS
The glideslope needle and the Outer, Middle, and Inner (OMI) marker lights
are used for ILS approaches. They work just as they do in real aircraft.
Refer to an instrument flying handbook such as the Flight Training Handbook
for information on instrument approach techniques and how to use these
At night, you can spot airports by their flashing beacons. Civilian
airports have beacons that alternate between green and white.
On long cross country flights an autopilot is a good flight aid. It
relieves a pilot of the tedious chore of holding a desired altitude and
tracking a heading or VOR. This reduces fatigue and lets the pilot devote
more time to other flight tasks (instrument scan, radio communications,
preparing for an approach, etc.).
An autopilot's wing leveler (a separate system in many planes, but
integrated with the autopilot in Flight Simulator II) keeps the wings as
level as possible and keeps you from going into an undesired turn or roll.
This is especially useful in turbulent conditions in clouds where, without
keeping an eye on the attitude indicator continuously (hard to do while
preparing for an instrument approach), you can end up in a steep bank or
upside down and not even realize it until it has tuned into an emergency
To set the autopilot, select the AUTOPILOT option on the NAV menu. A dialog
box with control boxes will appear as shown in Figure 21. The WING LEVELER
and VOR 1 LOCK can be toggled on or off by clicking on their control boxes.
HEADING LOCK and ALTITUDE LOCK will request a value when clicked. HEADING
LOCK requires the heading in degrees that you want to track. ALTITUDE LOCK
needs the altitude you want to maintain. You can turn any lock off by
clicking on one of the control boxes in the OFF column.
The VOR 1 LOCK tracks the VOR radial that you have set on the Omni-Bearing
Selector. A good way to setup the VOR 1 LOCK is to first track the VOR
manually as described in the VOR Navigation section. Then select the
Figure 20. Automatic Direction Finder (ADF)
Figure 21. Autopilot Menu
option and turn VOR 1 LOCK on. The autopilot will track the radial while
you perform other flight tasks.
Any combination of locks can be on at a time.
Once the autopilot is set, it will start tracking the locked functions. You
can turn the autopilot on and off by pressing the [Z] key at any time. The
autopilot on/off indicator is located on the control panel (see Reference
Flight controls for the locked functions (ailerons when the wing leveler is
turned on, for example) will respond sluggishly as you fight the autopilot.
If you need to regain full control for a while, temporarily turn the
SAVING AND RECALLING SITUATIONS
Flight Simulator II allows you to select from a series of prerecorded
situations. These include approach to landing, ILS approach, and many
others. You can also save a situation while you are flying and start flying
from it later by recalling it.
THE SITUATION MENU
Figure 22 shows the situation menu that is selected by clicking on the
SITUATION menu bar entry.
SELECTING A PRERECORDED SITUATION
Clicking on the SELECT PRERECORDED menu item activates a dialog box with a
list of preset situations. Choose the situation you want to fly in by
clicking on it. The simulator will start you off at this situation. From
this point on, pressing the [A] key on the keyboard will restart you in
CREATING AND NAMING YOUR OWN SITUATIONS
If you find yourself in a flight situation you would like to restart from
later (a favorite approach, or a strategic navigation position for
example), you can save it by pressing the [Q] key. A dialog box will appear
and ask you to give the situation a name. This is the new "current"
situation, and whenever you press the reset key [A], you will restart from
The saved situation is available for recall by name at a later time using
the RECALL menu option. You can create large menus of situations by saving
them and naming them with unique names.
The situations can be saved in two places; RAM (Random-Access Memory), or
on a separate disk. Whenever you save a situation, you will be asked which
location to save it to. You can build up many situations on disk and/or in
Saving to disk requires that you insert a writable disk of your own. You
will be asked to do this when necessary. This involves a disk swap, but you
can build up big situation libraries this way. Saving to RAM is fast and
requires no disk swap, but your situations are destroyed when you turn the
computer off. The SITUATION menu contains a few menu editing functions. The
LIST option lists all situations in the RAM and on disk by name. DELETE
lets you delete situations you no longer need. You will be asked to submit
a name to delete.
You can combine the convenience of RAM situations with the advantage of
long-term disk storage by using the SAVE RAM TO DISK and LOAD RAM FROM
DISK options. Simply use RAM for saving all situations while you fly. When
you are done using Flight Simulator II, select the SAVE RAM TO DISK option.
All RAM situations will be saved to the disk. When you wish to resume
flying, choose the LOAD RAM FROM DISK option to load all situations from
the disk into RAM.
IMPORTANT: Never save situations to the Flight Simulator II disk. This disk
should always remain write-protected.
As you fly, your position is constantly recorded. The last minute or so of
flight positions is always stored. You can select the INSTANT REPLAY item
on the SITUATION menu to get a visual view of the last few seconds of
flight. A dialog box tells you how many seconds of information are
available and asks how many you wish to view.
The instant replay is visual only. The instruments don't reflect the flight
conditions of the replayed flight. You may change view options such as zoom
factor, window size and view direction during instant replay. You may also
change window sizes, open new 3D windows or select spot or tower mode.
After the instant replay has been completed, the simulation will pause. To
abort an instant replay in progress, select INSTANT REPLAY from the
SITUATION menu, then close the dialog box. The instant replay will be
aborted, and you will be returned to flight mode with the simulation
Figure 22. Situation Menu Options
ADVANCED FLIGHT TECHNIQUES
There are a few maneuvers and advanced maneuvers that you can perform in
coordinated flight, and even more that can be done in uncoordinated flight.
A few of these maneuvers now will be examined.
MANEUVERS AND ADVANCED MANEUVERS
Maneuvers fall into two broad categories: those that make severe demands on
the aircraft and put it into unusual attitudes (such as barrel rolls,
spins, and loops), and those that use normal flight attitudes but require
skill, thought and precision (such as flying a rectangular course in a
wind, turns about a point, and eights along a road or around pylons in a
wind). Both types of maneuvers are fun, challenging, and help build skills
that are useful in every-day and emergency situations.
The FS2 is capable of most maneuvers and advanced maneuvers. There are
enough ground reference points to perform ground-reference maneuvers, and
the simulated aircraft has the power and airframe strength to do maximum
performance flight maneuvers. The editor can be used to set the wind speed
and direction to any velocity and angle, thereby adding challenge to ground
reference maneuvers. The view selector can be used to view the ground
reference points while making turns, but when using this feature, make sure
to remember which view direction is selected, and always revert to the
front view before going on to other flight tasks.
A good student flight manual such as the Flight Training Handbook,
publication AC 61-21A (1980 revision) put out by the Federal Aviation
Administration can be consulted for details on how to perform the following
1. Turns in the wind.
2. "S" turns across a road.
3. Turns around a point.
4. Eights along and across a road.
5. Eights around and on pylons.
6. Line-of-sight to pylons.
These maneuvers can be performed satisfactorily in auto-coordinated mode as
well as coordinated mode.
Many stalls can also be performed in both flight modes.
Click on AUTO COORD on the SIM menu to disable auto-coordinated flight
and make the ailerons and rudder work independently. With auto-coordination
disabled it is up to the pilot to coordinate turns using the slip-skid
indicator. If you are a pilot, your training has included slip and skid
procedures, turn coordination methods and warnings that tell you the
dangers of uncoordinated flight attitudes. No further explanations are
needed. New pilots, however, may wonder why anyone would ever want to fly
without auto-coordination (which is available in partial form on some modem
aircraft, and even some older models such as the Wright-Brothers'
aircraft). A few good uses for uncoordinated flight will now be presented.
As stated earlier, an aircraft is in coordinated flight when its
longitudinal axis is parallel to the direction of flight through the air
surrounding it. Coordinated flight is the safest flight attitude. The
aircraft is usually in its best aerodynamic position when flying in a
coordinated attitude - flying relatively straight through the air (as
opposed to flying through air sideways or slightly sideways, with air
battering one side of the aircraft leaving one wing in an airflow shadow).
Airplanes turn by banking that occurs when you apply ailerons. While in a
bank, your wing's lifting force (which normally points straight up in
straight flight) points at the bank angle. Some of the force is distributed
in the upward direction as usual, but the remaining force (or component of
the vector) points sideways. It's this side force that causes the aircraft
to start its turn, or at least to start moving slightly sideways through
the air. Incidentally, the lifting force is reduced in the bank (some of
the vector results in side-force) and this is why the aircraft tends to
loose altitude in a bank.
Once the aircraft starts flying slightly sideways, it is in uncoordinated
flight. This is where the rudder comes in. The rudder is used to yaw the
plane (cause it to rotate about its vertical axis, from side to side). If
the plane is flying slightly sideways due to its bank angle, the rudder can
be used to straighten the plane out again relative to the sideways oncoming
wind. When rudder is applied, the
flight becomes coordinated again as the aircraft is yawed. The yaw results
in a change in heading. The aircraft turns.
Rudder and aileron are applied together when entering the turn to keep the
plane in coordinated flight. The slip/skid indicator ball remains centered
to indicate that the aircraft is coordinated. If the ball is to the right
of center, more right rudder is needed. Similarly, when the ball is to the
left of center, more left rudder is needed.
A plane that has too little rudder applied flies through the air slightly
sideways. This is known as a slip. If aileron only is applied, a slip
results. With the rudder straight and only aileron applied, the aircraft
will still turn. Airplanes have good aerodynamics and like to point into
the wind, so the plane will "weather-vane" its way around to a new heading
to align itself with the flight path and oncoming wind. The result is an
uncoordinated turn. There are no good reasons for performing uncoordinated
turns and it's a bad habit to get into.
A bit of REVERSE rudder can be applied in a slip to keep the plane from
weather-vaning around. This is where a slip begins to become useful. If
right aileron and left rudder are applied, the aircraft banks to the right
and thus starts moving to the right. The reverse rudder keeps the plane
from yawing to a new heading so the plane's body stays lined-up with a
straight flight path. This technique can be used to move the plane to the
left or right without changing heading. If you happen to be on final
approach and are 30 feet from the runway's center, a slight slip can be
entered to move you over 30 feet while your plane remains pointing in the
Slips become even more useful when performing crosswind landings. As
mentioned earlier, you must land with your airplane pointing straight down
the runway. If you land at a slight angle (in a "crab") your wheels will
try to throw the plane off the runway. When landing in a crosswind,
however, you must fly at a slight crab angle to compensate for the
crosswind and to keep you from drifting away from the runway. There are
three ways to land in a crosswind. You can make your approach with a crab
angle and at the last instant before you touch down "kick it out" of the
crab angle. This can be quite dangerous and requires considerable skill to
do correctly. The second way is to land on glare ice in a crab angle. Your
wheels will simply slide down the runway sideways (hardly a practical
solution, but known to work). The practical solution which is most commonly
used is to use the slip. The aircraft can be kept aligned with (parallel
to) the runway using rudder, and ailerons can be used to increase bank to
the point where the airplane is flying sideways at just the right rate to
compensate for the crosswind. The slip can be held all the way down to the
landing. This, of course, means you will land in a bank on one wheel. There
is nothing wrong with that. Landing on one wheel is part of the crosswind
It is important to realize that slips, and any uncoordinated flight, puts
extra drag on the aircraft. You will loose altitude faster in a slip than
in straight, coordinated flight. This can be put to good use, again on
final approach. When you are too high on final approach, a slip can be used
to lose some altitude. This practice is very seldom used on modem
aircraft, but was used extensively on older planes, especially those
without flaps. A slip used to move the plane sideways, as in a crosswind
landing, is known as a side slip while a slip used to dissipate altitude
without increasing airspeed is a forward slip.
Slips, like any uncoordinated flight, put the aircraft in a bad aerodynamic
configuration and can thus be dangerous. It's good to get a feel for what
the aircraft is capable of by practicing crossed-control stalls at high
altitudes. In this maneuver, you intentionally enter a severe slip or skid
until the plane stalls.
When more aileron than rudder is used, a slip results. When more rudder
than aileron is used, a skid is produced. Skids are of little use and are
quite dangerous because they tend to cause the inner wing to stall, thereby
putting you into a spin or spiral in the direction of your current bank.
Severe slips can also stall a wing but they tend to bank you in the
opposite direction which tends to correct the problem. A skid immediately
increases the problem and can roll you so fast that the bank may be
vertical or past vertical before it can be stopped.
The FS2 simulator has enough instrumentation, and the "world" has enough
VORs, airports, ILS systems, marker beacons, and NDBs to practice IFR
flight and approaches. Instruments include two NAV radios and VOR
indicators, glide-slope indicator, ADF receiver and bearing indicator, DME,
and Inner marker, Middle marker, and Outer marker lights.
The subject of instrument approach techniques is outside the scope of this
manual. If you are not an instrument-rated pilot, details of instrument
approaches and flying can be found in training manuals such as Instrument
Flying by Richard L. Taylor (Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc. 1 978). Flight
Simulator II is a good aid in getting familiar with instrument approaches
and nicely supplements a training manual.
Instrument approaches are available at many of the airports included with
FS2. Approach information that includes approach-in-use, localizer
frequency, and other relevant items can be heard by tuning in ATIS on the
COM radio (ATIS frequencies appear on the charts). This information scrolls
across the screen above the 3D display at a rate that can be set using the
editor. The ATIS information is a combination of information that would
normally be given by ATIS, approach control, tower, and approach plates. If
no ATIS is available at the airport, tune in the indicated common traffic
Instrument approach aids (ILS, beacons, etc.) are patterned after
approaches found in United States Government Instrument Approach Procedures
(standard approach plates). These approach plates can aid you in practicing
WORLD WAR I ACE
WW I Ace is a 3D aerial battle game that involves bombing runs and
dog-fights with the computer-controlled enemy. Figure 23 shows the battle
area and its features.
STARTING THE GAME
To start the game, select WWI ACE from the FILE menu. This switches to the
battlefield shown in Fig. 23. You will be sitting on the runway of Airbase
2. You are fueled, armed, and ready to go. A truce is in effect and
hostilities won't begin until you declare war by pressing the [Shift][W]
keys. You can therefore go on a scouting mission to look over the enemy's
territory. You needn't be at your airbase to declare war, and may find it
more strategic to be elsewhere when doing so.
The enemy occupies the territory west of the river. They have established
two airbases, a fuel depot for each, and a few factories. Your commander
has instructed you to bomb the fuel depots and factories.
Your mission, however, is complicated by six enemy fighters stationed at
the airbases. These fighters will protect the fuel depots and factories.
Your mission is also to shoot down as many enemy fighters as possible.
WWI ACE CONTROLS
The same basic aircraft controls are used in both WWI ACE and regular
flight mode. The following controls are added to control the armament
World War I Ace Control Summary
[Shift][W] Declare war
[Shift][X] Drop bomb
[Shift][E] War report
[space bar] Machine guns
FIGHTING THE FIGHTERS
The basic way of fighting a fighter is to get close to one, point straight
at it, and fire your machine guns. The [space bar] is the gun trigger and
rapid bursts of many shots are needed to be effective. You have a
probabilistic chance of hitting an enemy if he is within your gun's sights
and range, but the distance you must be from the enemy decreases rapidly as
the enemy moves to the sides of the sights. The guns have good straight
range, but poor side range.
Every enemy fighter has a different flying technique. The enemy pilots have
orders to intercept any invader, but each fighter pilot has different
instructions concerning when to launch and when to return back to base. The
pilots are of different skill levels. Some take a long time to successfully
hit you, while the Aces are very proficient and score quickly.
Fighter planes as well as pilots are different from one another, There are
two fast, rugged fighters with unreliable guns, one plane with good speed
and maneuverability, one reliable fighter with average speed,
maneuverability, and guns, and two super fighters. These planes all have
different climb rates and cruise performance. Count on the Aces to bc in
the best planes.
FIGHTER MODE INSTRUMENTATION
The instrument panel is augmented with fighter aircraft instrumentation
when playing WW I Ace. The multipurpose instrument panel area (the radio
Figure 23. WWI Ace Battleground
area) goes into its attack-radar mode. In this mode, a small airplane
outline appears at the screen's center and the position of enemy fighters
around you is shown. The upper line of the attack-radar screen flashes
status messages indicating important war events.
World War I aircraft had no radar, but the FS2 does. This radar is
available to compensate for viewing restrictions of the 3D screen. The
radar picks up enemies around you. The small plane in the center of the
radar represents your position and orientation, and enemy aircraft are
represented by dots on the screen. This radar has approximately a 1-mile
The fuel depots and factories are the targets. There is only one load of
five bombs, so you can destroy a maximum of five targets per mission.
Refueling at Base 1 automatically reloads new bombs. Base 2 only has fuel.
The downward view includes a bomb sight in war mode. This is used to aim at
the target. The [Shift][X] keys drop a single bomb.
GETTING SHOT DOWN
The enemy can shoot you down. Every hit that the enemy gets degrades the
performance of your aircraft. Note that a shooting enemy doesn't
necessarily score. Hits depend on the enemy pilot's skill level. If your
aircraft is damaged (acting strangely, losing fuel, or oil pressure
dropping), try to make it back to ` the base for repairs and refueling.
BECOMING AN ACE
You must down at least five enemy aircraft to become an Ace. Extra points
will bring you other honors. Points are issued as follows:
1 Downing an enemy aircraft (depending on aircraft
and damage inflicted).
4 Bombing a factory.
2 Destroying a fuel depot.
There are only 6 enemy fighters spread between the two enemy airbases.
Enemy aircraft are replaced while you are at your base.
The MULTI PLAYER option from the FILE menu enables two or more players
using separate machines to fly together. Communication between machines is
through the Amiga's modem port. You may communicate with any machine which
runs FS2 and supports the multi-player option, so long as you have a
compatible cable to connect the machines together. (NOTE: In order for more
than two players to fly together a host program is necessary. Documentation
specific to setting up for more than two players is included with the host
program documentation. )
CONNECTING TWO MACHINES TOGETHER
If you will be communicating between two computers in the same room, you
can connect them together using SubLOGIC serial cables. These cables may be
ordered directly from SubLOGIC. (See the enclosed order card for more
information.) Once you have obtained these cables, making the connection is
simple, If the connection is between two Amiga computers, the cables will
be identical. Plug the DB25 ends (rectangular ends) of the cables into the
Amiga modem ports. Then connect the RCA plugs together, inserting the male
plug from one cable into the female plug on the other. Do the same for the
other pair of plugs so that all four RCA plugs have been connected. This
completes the connection. You are now ready to continue with multi-player.
If you will be using two modems for communications, you can connect one
directly to the modem port of each Amiga computer using a standard modem
cable. You do not need to obtain a SubLOGIC serial cable.
If you prefer, you can use your own cable. For the Amiga or Atari ST, any
null modem cable will work so long as you have the proper connectors on the
ends. (See Figure 24.) If both machines are Amigas, the DB25 connectors
must be male. A null modem cable is a cable in which lines 2 and 3 have
been crossed, with all other lines passing straight through. For
multi-player communications it is only necessary that lines 2,3 and 7 be
connected, but it is all right if all other lines pass through.
ESTABLISHING A CONNECTION BETWEEN MODEMS
If you will be communicating through modems, you must first make a
telephone connection. You can do this entirely within the FS2 program, From
the menu bar, click on FILE to bring up file options and then select MULTI
PLAYER. Select baud rate by clicking on the appropriate box on the right
side of the menu. You will probably want to use 300, 1200 or 2400,
depending on what baud rates your modem can handle. Make sure the other
player will be communicating at the same baud rate. Now, one of you must
make the phone call and the other must answer it.
If you are both using Hayes.compatible modems, use the following procedure.
The person answering need only click on the WAIT FOR RING box and wait for
the phone call to come through. The person making the call may click on the
DIAL box and then enter the phone number in the message box which will come
up. (Note that there is a ">" symbol to the left of the message line. This
signifies that characters will be sent to the modem, rather than to the
other player. More on that later.) Press [Return] to make the phone call.
If all goes well the number will be dialed and, when a connection has been
established, the message "CONNECT" will be displayed on the bottom line of
the message box. This means that the computers are ready to communicate.
Now both players must click on the ON-LINE box to begin multi-player
communications. This tells FS2 to begin sending information (such as
coordinates) between machines. It also disables the modem echo feature
which displayed the "CONNECT" message earlier.
If you are not using a Hayes-compatible modem, the DIAL and WAIT FOR RING
options may not work for you. In place of these, click on the
MESSAGES/TALK TO MODEM box to talk to the modem. A message box will come up
which will accept text to be sent either to the modem or the other player:
In order to talk to the modem, enter ">" as the first character. Then,
after pressing [Return], all characters entered on that line will be sent
to the modem rather than to the other player. You will also be removed from
ON-LINE mode so that information such as coordinates will not be sent.
Also, incoming characters will be echoed to the bottom line of the message
box so you will know what your modem is saying. Consult your modem
documentation to see how to establish a phone connection between machines.
After you have done that, click on ON-LINE to begin multi-player.
At any time, you can send a command to the modem by bringing up the
message box and entering ">" as the first character. This instructs FS2 to
Figure 24. Multi-Player Cable Connections
the line to the modem, rather than to the other player. Remember that it
will also remove you from ON-LINE mode, so that you will have to click on
ON-LINE to return to multi-player communications.
Note that when you are "talking" to your modem, all incoming characters
will be echoed to the bottom line of your message box. If the other player
is sending you information, this will also be echoed there. It might appear
as garbage. This does not mean that anything is wrong.
DIRECT CABLE CONNECTIONS
If your computers are connected using a direct cable (that is, without
modems), use the following procedure to establish communications.
From the menu bar, click on FILE to bring up file options and select MULTI
PLAYER. Choose your baud rate by clicking on the appropriate box on the
right side if the menu. It is best to communicate at the highest baud rate
the machines will support, so response will be quick. If both machines are
Amigas, both players should select 57600 baud. Next, click on the ON-LINE
box to begin communications. This tells the FS2 program to begin sending
coordinate information between machines.
MULTI PLAYER FLIGHT
Once you have established communications, you are ready to begin
multi-player flight. Place your planes so that they will be visible to each
other. The north and east coordinates of the other player's plane will
appear in the MULTI PLAYER dialog box at the bottom of your screen, next to
OTHER PLAYER COORDS. You can set your own coordinates to these values, or
near these values, using the POSITION SET menu. Once you have placed your
planes near each other, click on SEND AIRCRAFT to send the model of your
plane to the other player, and have him do the same for you. Although you
will be receiving coordinate information, you will not see his plane until
you have received his model.
Once you have set your aircraft to the same area and sent aircraft models,
you should be able to find the other plane. The easiest way to do this is
by using the multi-player track option. In multi-player mode, track mode
has a different
function. Instead of tracking your own plane from a movable tower, it
tracks the other player's plane from your aircraft. This is very useful for
finding the other plane, when you think it is near you but aren't sure in
which direction to look. Select track mode now by pressing the [D] key.
Your view direction might change, and the other airplane should be visible.
If it's very small, zoom in (press [F10]) for a closer look. This track
feature can be used at any time in multi-player flight to keep track of the
location of the other plane, but if you are flying your own plane while in
track mode, be careful; your view might not be the view straight out of the
Other than the difference in track mode, all FS2 features are available and
function the same in multi-player as in regular flight.
SENDING AND RECEIVING MESSAGES
You may send messages to the other player by clicking on the MESSAGES/TALK
TO MODEM box on the MULTI PLAYER menu. When you do so, a message box will
appear which will accept text to be sent to the other player. When you
bring up the message box, all characters typed will be directed there, and
will NOT have any effect on your flight, such as aircraft or view control.
You can switch from entering message text to controlling your airplane by
pressing the [F5] key. This will cause all keys to have their normal
effect. It will also make the message box cursor disappear to indicate that
keys have their normal function. To return to message mode, press the [F5]
key again. The cursor will reappear, and keypresses will be directed to the
To send your message, press [Return]. The message will be sent to the other
player and the top line of the message box will be cleared. You may enter
another message if you like, or you may close the box to exit message mode.
If you are entering a very long message, it will be sent in pieces as you
overrun the message box. The message box can accommodate 49 characters, so
after you type your 5Oth character, the first 49 characters will be sent
and your message line will be cleared so you can continue entering text.
Messages received from the other player will be displayed on the bottom
line of the message box. If you receive a message from the other player
while your message box is not active, it will be brought up automatically
for you. If you
want to respond to the message, you can do so in the normal way, or you can
merely close the box after reading the message.
OTHER MULTI PLAYER OPTIONS
The MULTI PLAYER menu includes an option to change your airplane's
fuselage color. After doing so, if you want your opponent to see the new
color of your airplane, you must re-send your airplane model (by clicking
on SEND AIRCRAFT). Your new fuselage color will be visible to you
immediately if you look at your airplane from an external view (SPOT or
TOWER mode). Also, if you select a different aircraft type (JET or PROP)
and you want the other player to see it, you must re-send your model.
Because it can take a while to send an aircraft model (up to one minute at
300 baud), and other information such as airplane coordinates can't be sent
during this time, it is a good idea to not send the aircraft model unless
If you raise or lower your landing gear, this information is automatically
sent to the other player, just as your coordinates are constantly being
sent. To exit multi-player mode, click on the QUIT MULTI PLAYER box on the
MULTI PLAYER menu. If your connection is through a modem, you might want to
disconnect the phone first, by sending a message to the modem using the
MESSAGES/TALK TO MODEM option.
SUGGESTIONS FOR MULTI PLAYER FLIGHT
Because an airplane is relatively small and the field of view comprises
only a small portion of 3D space, it may at first be difficult to find and
keep track of the other player's plane. This becomes easier with practice.
In the meantime, there are some features of FS2 that can be used to make it
The most useful feature for keeping track of the other player's plane is
the multi-player track mode (activated by pressing the [D] key). This will
always point your view in the direction of the other player's plane.
Observing the scenery in the background of the other plane can help you
determine where the other plane is located with respect to your aircraft.
If another 3D window is active and is showing the view from your cockpit,
it will not be too difficult to
fly towards the other plane when it gets far out of range. Exciting views
can be generated in track mode by flying by and around the other plane.
For a demonstration of how effective the track display can be, try setting
a large cockpit view in the main 3D window and a smaller track view in the
second 3D window. (You may want to slide the panel down a bit to make more
room.) Move the second 3D window to a comer of the main 3D window so it
will not obscure too much of the cockpit view. Zoom in tight enough on the
track display so that the other player's plane is clearly visible. Now as
you fly, the other plane will always remain in sight. As you get near the
other plane you will get exciting, dynamic views in the track window. It
might be useful to fully zoom out (to .25 zoom factor) on your cockpit view
to make it easier to find things.
It is also helpful to agree to fly within a relatively small area with
recognizable landmarks. For example, the Chicago database contains the John
Hancock Building and the Sears Tower, two large buildings which are easily
findable from the air. If flying is kept within this area, it will always
be easy to find the other plane, particularly by using these landmarks as a
guide. You can send messages (such as "I'm circling the Sears Tower!") to
help the other player find you. The map display can be helpful in locating
landmarks if you get too far away.
One problem in finding the other plane is that, in addition to being in any
direction around you, he might also be at any altitude above or below you.
By having both players enable autopilot and set altitude lock to the same
level, the autopilot will do a good job of maintaining a fairly steady
altitude as long as you don't get too aerobatic. Then you can concentrate
on just looking left and right to find the other player. It can also be
useful to bank fairly hard, fly in a circle, and look for the other plane
to come into view. Again, zooming way out on the cockpit display will be
SLEW mode and POSITION SET can also be useful in bringing your planes
together, both initially and when they stray too far apart. If you get too
far ahead of the other player, you can pause ([P] key) your simulation for
a bit to let him catch up. You might also want to disable crash detection
(under REALISM in the SIM menu), because it is easy to get so wrapped up in
searching for your partner that you forget about the location of your own
Once you are adept at finding each other in a local area, it shouldn't be
too hard to stay in contact in a wide open area on a cross-country flight.
The fine view adjustment controls (the cursor keys) can be used to keep the
other plane in sight, much as a passenger on a plane would turn his head to
view the scenery as it passes by. And watching the other plane do
aerobatics can be particularly enjoyable, a sort of do-it-yourself airshow!
APPENDIX I - REFERENCE FIGURES
The Standardized Instrument Cluster
1. Airspeed indicator (knots)
2. Attitude indicator (artificial horizon)
3. Altimeter (feet)
4. Turn coordinator with slip/skid indicator
5. Heading indicator (directional gyro)
6. Vertical speed (rate of climb) indicator
Other Instruments and Indicators
7. Magnetic compass
8. Omni-Bearing Indicator with glideslope (NAV 1)
9. Omni-Bearing Indicator (NAV 2)
11. Outer, Middle and Inner marker lights
12. Left wing fuel tank gauge
13. Right wing fuel tank gauge
14. Oil temperature gauge
15. Oil pressure gauge
17. NAV 1 radio
18. NAV 2 radio
19. Distance measuring equipment (DME)
20. Automatic direction finder (ADF)
21. COM radio
Control Position Indicators
23. Aileron position indicator
24. Elevator position indicator
25. Rudder position indicator
26. Throttle position indicator
27. Elevator trim indicator
Reference Figure 1. Instruments
28. Carb heat on/off
29. Landing gear up/down
30. Flap position setting
31. Magneto switch position
32. Lights on/off
33. Mouse Cursor/Yoke mode setting
34. 3D primary window zoom factor
35. Autopilot on/off
(Reference Figure 1 here)
Reference Figure 2. Keyboard Controls
Ace (see World War I Ace) Autopilot (continued)
ADF (see Automatic Direction Finder) indicator 26
Advanced flight techniques 101-105
Aileron control Bank
figure 33 control 27
joystick centering 37 indicator 21
joystick control 37 Barometric drift
keyboard centering 32 adjustment knob 21
keyboard control 33 description 72
Aileron position indicator Brake
defined 25 control 27, 31-32
Aircraft controls 27-37 figure 36
Airport beacons 92 indicator 32
Airspeed indicator keyboard control 36
Altimeter Carburetor heat
calibration 52 control 48
defined 21-22 defined 26
Artificial horizon description 48
defined 21 indicator figure 49
Aspect ratio lock Cessna 182 7, 53
control 45 Climbing
description 45 Cessna 56-57
lock 15 Clock
Amiga standard conventions 14 defined 23
Amiga standard differences 14 figure 67
ATIS 25, 51 Clouds
Attitude indicator control 66
defined 21 description 18
Auto-coordinated flight 22, 25, 31, 70 figure 67
Auto-demo 11-12 Cockpit mode
Automatic Direction Finder defined 39
control 91 fine view control 40
defined 24 viewing directions 40
description 91 Communications radio
figure 93 control 51-52
gauge 20 description 24, 25, 51
radio description 24, 51 Control position
radio selector 51 Control sensitivity
Autopilot description 72-73
control 92 Control stick 27
description 92 Control yoke
figure 94 aileron control figure 33
Control yoke (continued) Flaps (continued)
description 28, 31 position indicator defined 26
elevator control figure 34 position indicator figure 49
joystick 37 stall speed 58
micro-adjustable 32, 37 Flight instrument 17
Coordinated Flight (see Auto- Flight modes
coordinated flight) Demo 15
Course deviation indicator 81 Jet 15
Course selector 81 Multi Player 15
Crash detection 72 Prop 15
Crosswind 103-104 Quiet Demo 15
Cursor WWI Ace 15
yoke mode switching 27, 28 Fog 66
Fuel tank gauge
Demo left 24
control 11-12 right 24
Distance Measuring Equipment Gear (see Landing gear)
description 91 Glide slope indicator 23
procedure 91 Glide
range 91 description 57
DME (see Distance Measuring procedure 57-58
Equipment) Graphics driver 7
DME radio 24 Gyro-compass drift 22
Gyroscopic procession 22
figure 34 Heading indicator
joystick 37 calibration 52
position indicator 25 defined 22
Elevator trim knob 22
control 47 Help 12
description 47, 70, 72 Help key 12
indicator figure 26, 49
Encoding altimeter 25 Icon indicator boxes 26
Engine 70 IFR conditions 53
Enviro menu 18 ILS (see Instrument Landing System)
Environment control Info menu 17, 53
description 66-68 Information 25
figure 67 Instant replay 98
File menu 17 Instrument diagram 123
Flaps Instrument flight 104-105
control 47 Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) 17
description 47 Instrument Landing System (ILS) 51,
gliding 58 91-92
Instrument lights 72 Magnetic compass 23, 52
Instrument panel Magneto switch
description 20 control 48
double-click 20 description 48
Instrument 17, 20, 25 indicator figure 49
Isogonic effect 23 indicator defined 26
Joystick Map display
primary flight controls 37 aircraft orientation 75
setup 11 center symbol 75
control 45, 75
Keyboard description 18, 45
description 28 north orientation 75
diagram 124 zoom 75
primary flight controls 32, 37 zoom control figure 77
reminders 28 Menu bar 17-18
Landing click 14
bounce 59 control figure 29
flare 59 cursor mode defined 28
ground.loop 59 double click 14
procedure 59-60 right button 14
sound 59 yoke indicator defined 26
sell 59 yoke mode defined 27
Landing gear Mouse and keyboard interaction 27
control 50 Multi Player
description 50 additional suggestions 118-120
indicator defined 26 baud rates 114, 116
indicator figure 49 changing fuselage color 118
Learjet connecting machines 113
airspeed indicator 62 control options 116-118
controls 62-63 description 113-120
description 7, 20, 62 establishing connection 114, 116
flying techniques 62-63 flight options 116-118
instruments 62 hayes-compatible modem 114
overspeed 62-63 leaving multi player 118
slowing down 62-63 making your own cable 113
tachometer 62 modem connection 113
Light bum 72 sending aircraft model 116
Light sending messages 117, 118
control 50 serial cable figure 115
description 50 Sublogic serial cable 113
indicator defined 26 talking to modem 114, 116
indicator figure 49 track mode 117
Nav menu Realism
description 18 control 70, 72
figure 77 figure 71
Nav radio Refueling 50, 60
description 23 Reliability
frequency adjustment 81 control 70
radial setting 81 dialog box figure 71
Navigation figure 71
options 75.80 Roll 30
world description 75-76 Rudder
Navigational aids control figure 35
description 81-96 position indicator defined 25
Null zone 73 figure 35
keyboard centering 32
Oil pressure gauge 24 keyboard control 31, 35
Oil temperature gauge 24
OMI lights 23 Season
Omni-Bearing Selector 81 description 18
Omni-bearing indicator setting 65
control 51 Second three dimensional window
defined 23 control 44
description 24, 51 description 44
Online help 12 Secondary aircraft controls 47-52
Orientation marker 15, 18 Sensitivity 27
Serial cable 113
Panel diagram 123 Servicing 60
Partial panel 72 Shader 15
Pause Sim menu
control 18, 69 description 18
while in cursor mode 69 figure 71
Pitch Simulation control
control 27 description 69
figure 30 Situation
Position set description 18
control 79 figure 99
control tower set 79 menu options 97-99
description 79 save and recall 97-98
Primary flight controls Slew mode
description 28-37 control 76, 78
figure 30 description 76
world coordinates 78
Radio stack 20 Slip/skid indicator 22
Radios 17, 24, 25 Sound 69
Rate of climb indicator 23 Spot mode
Spot mode (continued) Uncoordinated flight 22
figure 42 aileron-rudder action 102-104
setting distance 40, 43 description 102-104
setting position 40, 43 extra drag 104
transition speed 43 skid 104
transition type 43 slip 103
Stall 47 use in crosswind 103-104
System requirements 11
Vertical speed indicator 23
Tachometer 24 VFR (see Visual Flight Rules)
Takeoff View control
Cessna 56 description 39-46
pre-takeoff check 55-56 figure 41
Taxiing 55 View menu
Test flight 12-13 description 17
Text entry 14 figure 41
Three dimensional display 18-20 View mode
Throttle Cockpit 17
control 27, 31 figure 41
control figure 36 selection 39
fast acceleration 70 Spot 17
figure 35 Tower 17
joystick control 37 Track 17
keyboard control 34 Visual Flight Rules (VFR) 17, 53
position indicator 25 Visual systems 17
Time of day VOR
control 65-66 crosschecking position 88
effects 65 description 81
Title bar function 39 distance measuring 91
To-from-off indicator 81 figure 83
Tower mode 39 figures 83, 84, 86, 87, 89, 90
Track mode instruments 81
defined 39 navigation technique 81-91
setting distance 40 radio control 50-51
Training 9 radio description 50
Transponder stations 23
description 24, 25, 52 Wind
Turbulence 66, 68 control 66, 68
Turn coordinator 22 description 18
Turns figure 67
dihedral effects 58 Window
procedure 58 closing 14, 44
full size 20
moving 14, 18
sizing 14, 20
title bars 15, 20
World War I Ace
ace requirements 111
battleground figure 109
enemy fighters 108
getting shot down 110
instrumentation 108, 110
starting game 107
Yoke mode 27
keyboard control 40
indicator defined 26
menu figure 41
Provided by THE SOUTHERN STAR for M.A.A.D.